Urology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.Urology Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the urologic patient.Urologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its parts in the male or female. For surgery of the male genitalia, UROLOGIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES, MALE is available.Urologic Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY TRACT in both males and females.Urinary Retention: Inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER with voiding (URINATION).Reference Books, Medical: Books in the field of medicine intended primarily for consultation.Cystoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.Patient Escort Service: A special service provided by volunteers to accompany patients who need help in moving about the health facility.Learning Curve: The course of learning of an individual or a group. It is a measure of performance plotted over time.Urologic Surgical Procedures, Male: Surgery performed on the male genitalia.Urogenital Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Urinary Bladder Calculi: Stones in the URINARY BLADDER; also known as vesical calculi, bladder stones, or cystoliths.Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Ureteroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the ureter.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Phimosis: A condition in which the FORESKIN cannot be retracted to reveal the GLANS PENIS. It is due to tightness or narrowing of the foreskin opening.Nephrology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney.Personnel Selection: The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.Prostatic Hyperplasia: Increase in constituent cells in the PROSTATE, leading to enlargement of the organ (hypertrophy) and adverse impact on the lower urinary tract function. This can be caused by increased rate of cell proliferation, reduced rate of cell death, or both.Financial Audit: An examination, review and verification of all financial accounts.Dysuria: Painful URINATION. It is often associated with infections of the lower URINARY TRACT.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Urinary Catheterization: Passage of a CATHETER into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney.Urinary Tract: The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Hydronephrosis: Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.