An encapsulated accumulation of URINE in the retroperitoneal area. It has the appearance of a cyst (CYSTS). Urinoma is usually caused by URETERAL OBSTRUCTION, renal trauma or perforation of the renal collecting system.
An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.