Trigeminal Neuralgia: A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)Radiosurgery: A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.Amifostine: A phosphorothioate proposed as a radiation-protective agent. It causes splenic vasodilation and may block autonomic ganglia.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Hypesthesia: Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pulsed Radiofrequency Treatment: The application, via IMPLANTED ELECTRODES, of short bursts of electrical energy in the radiofrequency range, interspersed with pauses in delivery of the current long enough to dissipate the generated heat and avoid heat-induced tissue necrosis.Post-Traumatic Headache: Secondary headache attributed to TRAUMA of the HEAD and/or the NECK.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Neuralgia, Postherpetic: Pain in nerves, frequently involving facial SKIN, resulting from the activation the latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). The two forms of the condition preceding the pain are HERPES ZOSTER OTICUS; and HERPES ZOSTER OPHTHALMICUS. Following the healing of the rashes and blisters, the pain sometimes persists.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Hypothyroidism: A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.Water-Electrolyte Imbalance: Disturbances in the body's WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Trigeminal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Infantile Apparent Life-Threatening Event: An event experienced by an infant or a child that is characterized by some combination of apnea, color change, change in muscle tone, choking, and gagging.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.AzerbaijanSpecific Gravity: The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Transition Temperature: The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Fagopyrum: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is used as an EDIBLE GRAIN. Although the seeds are used as cereal, the plant is not one of the cereal grasses (POACEAE).Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Nasolacrimal Duct: A tubular duct that conveys TEARS from the LACRIMAL GLAND to the nose.Exophthalmos: Abnormal protrusion of both eyes; may be caused by endocrine gland malfunction, malignancy, injury, or paralysis of the extrinsic muscles of the eye.Lacrimal Duct Obstruction: Interference with the secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands. Obstruction of the LACRIMAL SAC or NASOLACRIMAL DUCT causing acute or chronic inflammation of the lacrimal sac (DACRYOCYSTITIS). It is caused also in infants by failure of the nasolacrimal duct to open into the inferior meatus and occurs about the third week of life. In adults occlusion may occur spontaneously or after injury or nasal disease. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p250)Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Orbital Diseases: Diseases of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.Eyelid Neoplasms: Tumors of cancer of the EYELIDS.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Preservation, Biological: The process of protecting various samples of biological material.Organ Preservation: The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Contact Lenses: Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)Cryoprotective Agents: Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.