Treatment Refusal: Patient or client refusal of or resistance to medical, psychological, or psychiatric treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Living Wills: Written, witnessed declarations in which persons request that if they become disabled beyond reasonable expectation of recovery, they be allowed to die rather than be kept alive by extraordinary means. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Refusal to Participate: Refusal to take part in activities or procedures that are requested or expected of an individual. This may include refusal by HEALTH PERSONNEL to participate in specific medical procedures or refusal by PATIENTS or members of the public to take part in clinical trials or health promotion programs.Refusal to Treat: Refusal of the health professional to initiate or continue treatment of a patient or group of patients. The refusal can be based on any reason. The concept is differentiated from PATIENT REFUSAL OF TREATMENT see TREATMENT REFUSAL which originates with the patient and not the health professional.Jehovah's Witnesses: Members of a religious denomination founded in the United States during the late 19th century in which active evangelism is practiced, the imminent approach of the millennium is preached, and war and organized government authority in matters of conscience are strongly opposed (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). Jehovah's Witnesses generally refuse blood transfusions and other blood-based treatments based on religious belief.Feeding and Eating Disorders of Childhood: Mental disorders related to feeding and eating usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood.Conscience: The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Hepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Strikes, Employee: Work-related situations in which the employees as a group refuse to work until certain conditions of employment are granted by the employer.Christianity: The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Mental Competency: The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).Empiricism: One of the principal schools of medical philosophy in ancient Greece and Rome. It developed in Alexandria between 270 and 220 B.C., the only one to have any success in reviving the essentials of the Hippocratic concept. The Empiricists declared that the search for ultimate causes of phenomena was vain, but they were active in endeavoring to discover immediate causes. The "tripod of the Empirics" was their own chance observations (experience), learning obtained from contemporaries and predecessors (experience of others), and, in the case of new diseases, the formation of conclusions from other diseases which they resembled (analogy). Empiricism enjoyed sporadic continuing popularity in later centuries up to the nineteenth. (From Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed, p186; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Therapeutic Misconception: Misunderstanding among individuals, frequently research subjects, of scientific methods such as randomization and placebo controls.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Acanthamoeba castellanii: A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Acetoin: A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.Acetoin Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to diacetyl in the presence of NAD.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.4-Aminopyridine: One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Reimbursement Mechanisms: Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Aromatase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic: Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives: Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Plasma Substitutes: Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.