Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
Any preparations used for cleansing teeth; they usually contain an abrasive, detergent, binder and flavoring agent and may exist in the form of liquid, paste or powder; may also contain medicaments and caries preventives.
A self-governing state of the Windward Islands in the West Indies, comprising Saint Vincent and the northern islets of the Grenadines. Its capital is Kingstown. It is one of the original homes of the Carib Indians supposed to have been sighted by Columbus in 1498. It was in English hands from 1627 till held by the French 1779-83. Saint Vincent subsequently became a British possession and, with other nearby British territories, was administered by the Governor of the Windward Islands till 1959. It attained a measure of independence in 1969 but achieved full independence as Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in 1979. Saint Vincent was the 4th century Spanish martyr on whose feast day Columbus discovered the island. Grenadines is derived from the Spanish kingdom of Granada. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1054 & The Europa World Year Book 1993, p2441)
The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The social process by which something or someone comes to be regarded and treated as an article of trade or commerce.
Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.
The pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes. It is differentiated from TOOTH ATTRITION in that this type of wearing away is the result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It differs also from TOOTH EROSION, the progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes not involving bacterial action. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p2)
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.
A plant genus of the family STERCULIACEAE. This is the source of the kola nut which contains CAFFEINE and is used in popular beverages.
The susceptibility of the DENTAL ENAMEL to dissolution.
Carbonic acid (H2C03). The hypothetical acid of carbon dioxide and water. It exists only in the form of its salts (carbonates), acid salts (hydrogen carbonates), amines (carbamic acid), and acid chlorides (carbonyl chloride). (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A residue of coal, left after dry (destructive) distillation, used as a fuel.
An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.
Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processes
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Partial or complete displacement of a tooth from its alveolar support. It is commonly the result of trauma. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p312)
Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.
The physiologic or functional barrier to GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX at the esophagogastric junction. Sphincteric muscles remain tonically contracted during the resting state and form the high-pressure zone separating the lumen of the ESOPHAGUS from that of the STOMACH. (Haubrich et al, Bockus Gastroenterology, 5th ed., pp399, 415)
Measures aimed at providing appropriate supportive and rehabilitative services to minimize morbidity and maximize quality of life after a long-term disease or injury is present.
Surgical formation of an opening into the DUODENUM.
The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).
Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)
Techniques used for removal of bonded orthodontic appliances, restorations, or fixed dentures from teeth.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces and DENTAL MATERIALS with etching agents, usually phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion or osteointegration.