Toilet Facilities: Facilities provided for human excretion, often with accompanying handwashing facilities.Health Facility Closure: The closing of any health facility, e.g., health centers, residential facilities, and hospitals.Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography: Three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging with the added dimension of time, to follow motion during imaging.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)NewsMass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.Military Medicine: The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.ArchivesPeriodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Friends: Persons whom one knows, likes, and trusts.Social Marketing: Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.United Arab Emirates: A federation of seven states on the southeast portion of the Arabian peninsula: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Qaiwain. In 1820 a treaty of peace was concluded between Great Britain and native rulers. During the 19th century the rulers agreed to suppression of the slave trade and restriction of foreign relations to Great Britain. The Trucial Council was established in 1952 and defense treaties with Great Britain terminated. In 1971 an independent six-member federation was formed, with Ras al-Khaimah joining the federation in 1972. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1250)Rickettsieae: A tribe of gram-negative bacteria of the family RICKETTSIACEAE whose organisms are found in arthropods and are pathogenic for man and certain other vertebrate hosts.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Funeral Rites: Those customs and ceremonies pertaining to the dead.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Hospitals, Military: Hospitals which provide care for the military personnel and usually for their dependents.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Chemical Hazard Release: Uncontrolled release of a chemical from its containment that either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a chemical hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.Emergency Medical Service Communication Systems: The use of communication systems, such as telecommunication, to transmit emergency information to appropriate providers of health services.United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration: An office in the Department of Labor responsible for developing and establishing occupational safety and health standards.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Casuistry: A method of ETHICAL ANALYSIS that emphasizes practical problem solving through examining individual cases that are considered to be representative; sometimes used to denote specious argument or rationalization. Differentiate from casuistics, which is the recording and study of cases and disease.Postmodernism: A late 20th-century philosophical approach or style of cultural analysis that seeks to reveal the cultural or social construction of concepts conventionally assumed to be natural or universal. (from E.R. DuBose, The Illusion of Trust: Toward a Medical Theological Ethics in the Postmodern Age, Kluwer, 1995)Urination Disorders: Abnormalities in the process of URINE voiding, including bladder control, frequency of URINATION, as well as the volume and composition of URINE.Ethical Relativism: The philosophical view that conceptions of truth and moral values are not absolute but are relative to the persons or groups holding them. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed)Anonymous Testing: Testing in which the source of the specimen or the person being tested is not individually identified.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Libya: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria, having southern border with Chad, Niger, and Sudan. Its capital is Tripoli.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.SingaporeMalaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Sports Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.Doping in Sports: Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.