Timolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist similar in action to PROPRANOLOL. The levo-isomer is the more active. Timolol has been proposed as an antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, antiangina, and antiglaucoma agent. It is also used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS and tremor.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Prostaglandins F, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Ocular Hypertension: A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.Betaxolol: A cardioselective beta-1-adrenergic antagonist with no partial agonist activity.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Glaucoma, Open-Angle: Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Benzalkonium Compounds: A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.Preservatives, Pharmaceutical: Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.Cloprostenol: A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Metipranolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist effective for both beta-1 and beta-2 receptors. It is used as an antiarrhythmic, antihypertensive, and antiglaucoma agent.Carteolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist used as an anti-arrhythmia agent, an anti-angina agent, an antihypertensive agent, and an antiglaucoma agent.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)ThiophenesProstaglandins, Synthetic: Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that are analogs or derivatives of naturally occurring prostaglandins and that have similar activity.Fluorophotometry: Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. The method is used to investigate the blood-aqueous barrier, blood-retinal barrier, aqueous flow measurements, corneal endothelial permeability, and tear flow dynamics.Conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.Carbonic Anhydrase I: A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in ERYTHROCYTES, vascular endothelial cells, and the gastrointestinal mucosa. EC 4.2.1.-Pilocarpine: A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.Pharmaceutical Vehicles: A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)Sick Sinus Syndrome: A condition caused by dysfunctions related to the SINOATRIAL NODE including impulse generation (CARDIAC SINUS ARREST) and impulse conduction (SINOATRIAL EXIT BLOCK). It is characterized by persistent BRADYCARDIA, chronic ATRIAL FIBRILLATION, and failure to resume sinus rhythm following CARDIOVERSION. This syndrome can be congenital or acquired, particularly after surgical correction for heart defects.Vivisection: The cutting of or surgical operation on a living animal, usually for physiological or pathological investigation. (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dict, 10th ed)Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Hydrochlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Blood Pressure Determination: Techniques for measuring blood pressure.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Urine Specimen Collection: Methods or procedures used to obtain samples of URINE.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Night Vision: Function of the human eye that is used in dim illumination (scotopic intensities) or at nighttime. Scotopic vision is performed by RETINAL ROD PHOTORECEPTORS with high sensitivity to light and peak absorption wavelength at 507 nm near the blue end of the spectrum.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Migraine Disorders: A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Migraine with Aura: A subtype of migraine disorder, characterized by recurrent attacks of reversible neurological symptoms (aura) that precede or accompany the headache. Aura may include a combination of sensory disturbances, such as blurred VISION; HALLUCINATIONS; VERTIGO; NUMBNESS; and difficulty in concentrating and speaking. Aura is usually followed by features of the COMMON MIGRAINE, such as PHOTOPHOBIA; PHONOPHOBIA; and NAUSEA. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Sumatriptan: A serotonin agonist that acts selectively at 5HT1 receptors. It is used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.MaleatesDisposable Equipment: Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.