5-Thymidylic acid. A thymine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.171.
An FAD-dependent oxidoreductase found primarily in BACTERIA. It is specific for the reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.1.1.68 and 1.1.99.15.
An NADP-dependent oxidoreductase that catalyses the conversion of 5,10-methyleneterahydrofolate to 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate. In higher eukaryotes a trifunctional enzyme exists with additional METHENYLTETRAHYDROFOLATE CYCLOHYDROLASE and FORMATE-TETRAHYDROFOLATE LIGASE activity. The enzyme plays an important role in the synthesis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the methyl donor for the VITAMIN B12-dependent remethylation of HOMOCYSTEINE to METHIONINE via METHIONINE SYNTHETASE.
Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.
A colorimetric reagent for iron, manganese, titanium, molybdenum, and complexes of zirconium. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
A computer disk read by a laser beam, containing data prerecorded by a vendor. The buyer cannot enter or modify data in any way but the advantages lie in the speed of accessibility, relative immunity to damage, and relatively low cost of purchase.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Procedures to reverse the effect of REPRODUCTIVE STERILIZATION and to regain fertility. Reversal procedures include those used to restore the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE or the VAS DEFERENS.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside monophosphate, e.g., UMP, to form ADP and UDP. Many nucleoside monophosphates can act as acceptor while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.4.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of uridine and cytidine to uridine 5'-phosphate and cytidine 5'-phosphate, respectively. ATP, dUTP, dGTP, and dATP are effective phosphate donors. EC 2.7.1.48.
A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A phosphoric diester hydrolase that removes 5'-nucleotides from the 3'-hydroxy termini of 3'-hydroxy-terminated OLIGONUCLEOTIDES. It has low activity towards POLYNUCLEOTIDES and the presence of 3'-phosphate terminus on the substrate may inhibit hydrolysis.
Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.