Thromboxane A2: An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).Receptors, Thromboxane: Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.Receptors, Thromboxane A2, Prostaglandin H2: A subclass of eicosanoid receptors that have specificity for THROMBOXANE A2 and PROSTAGLANDIN H2.Thromboxanes: Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.Thromboxane-A Synthase: An enzyme found predominantly in platelet microsomes. It catalyzes the conversion of PGG(2) and PGH(2) (prostaglandin endoperoxides) to thromboxane A2. EC 126.96.36.199.15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid: A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)Prostaglandin Endoperoxides, Synthetic: Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.Hydrazines6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha: The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.Prostaglandins H: A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin H2.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Receptors, Prostaglandin: Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).Epoprostenol: A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).Prostaglandin H2: A cyclic endoperoxide intermediate produced by the action of CYCLOOXYGENASE on ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is further converted by a series of specific enzymes to the series 2 prostaglandins.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Prostaglandin Endoperoxides: Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Eicosanoids: A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Pentanoic AcidsProstanoic Acids: 2-Octylcyclopentaneheptanoic acids. The family of saturated carbon-20 cyclic fatty acids that represent the parent compounds of the prostaglandins.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Arachidonic AcidsIndomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Prostaglandins, Synthetic: Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that are analogs or derivatives of naturally occurring prostaglandins and that have similar activity.Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases: Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.BenzoxepinsCyclooxygenase 1: A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.Prostaglandins D: Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They show pressor activity, are mediators of inflammation, and have potential antithrombotic effects.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Prostaglandin Antagonists: Compounds that inhibit the action of prostaglandins.Prostaglandins E: (11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Bleeding Time: Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Prostaglandins F: (9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.Bicyclo CompoundsAcrylatesCyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Isoprostanes: A series of prostaglandin-like compounds that are produced by the attack of free-radical species on unsaturated fatty acids, especially ARACHIDONIC ACID, of cellular MEMBRANES. Once cleaved from the lipid membrane by the action of phospholipases they can circulate into various bodily fluids and eventually be excreted. Although these compounds resemble enzymatically synthesized prostaglandins their stereoisometric arrangement is usually different than the "naturally occurring" compounds.SRS-A: A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Eicosanoic Acids: 20-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Biphenyl CompoundsBicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic: A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.beta-Thromboglobulin: A platelet-specific protein which is released when platelets aggregate. Elevated plasma levels have been reported after deep venous thrombosis, pre-eclampsia, myocardial infarction with mural thrombosis, and myeloproliferative disorders. Measurement of beta-thromboglobulin in biological fluids by radioimmunoassay is used for the diagnosis and assessment of progress of thromboembolic disorders.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Receptors, Epoprostenol: Cell surface receptors for EPOPROSTENOL. They are coupled to HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Prostaglandin D2: The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Intramolecular Oxidoreductases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Heptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Iloprost: An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.Dioxanes: 1,4-Diethylene dioxides. Industrial solvents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), dioxane itself may "reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck Index, 11th ed)Platelet Activating Factor: A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors: A subclass of cyclooxygenase inhibitors with specificity for CYCLOOXYGENASE-2.F2-Isoprostanes: Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Leukotriene B4: The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Phenylacetates: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Leukotrienes: A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Benzofurans: Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.12-Hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid: A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.DibenzothiepinsVasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Alprostadil: A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Prostaglandins I: A class of cyclic prostaglandins that contain the 6,9-epoxy bond. Endogenous members of this family are biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Prostaglandins G: A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin G2.Endothelins: 21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Lipoxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Salicylates: The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Urticaria Pigmentosa: The most common form of cutaneous mastocytosis (MASTOCYTOSIS, CUTANEOUS) that occurs primarily in children. It is characterized by the multiple small reddish-brown pigmented pruritic macules and papules.Phospholipases A: Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.4,5-Dihydro-1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-amine: A dual inhibitor of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. It exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the formation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The drug also enhances pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction and has a protective effect after myocardial ischemia.Gefarnate: A water insoluble terpene fatty acid used in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers; it facilitates the healing and function of mucosal tissue.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Blood Platelet Disorders: Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids: Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP1 Subtype: A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GQ and the subsequently activates TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. Additional evidence has shown that the receptor can act through a calcium-dependent signaling pathway.Carbazoles: Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y12: A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ADP binding and are coupled to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GI. The P2Y12 purinergic receptors are found in PLATELETS where they play an important role regulating PLATELET ACTIVATION.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Lipoxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic Acid: A 20-carbon-chain fatty acid, unsaturated at positions 8, 11, and 14. It differs from arachidonic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, only at position 5.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).