Thoracostomy: Surgical procedure involving the creation of an opening (stoma) into the chest cavity for drainage; used in the treatment of PLEURAL EFFUSION; PNEUMOTHORAX; HEMOTHORAX; and EMPYEMA.Chest Tubes: Plastic tubes used for drainage of air or fluid from the pleural space. Their surgical insertion is called tube thoracostomy.Pneumothorax: An accumulation of air or gas in the PLEURAL CAVITY, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process. The gas may also be introduced deliberately during PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL.Empyema, Pleural: Suppurative inflammation of the pleural space.Thoracic Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.Hemothorax: Hemorrhage within the pleural cavity.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Pleural Effusion: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted: Endoscopic surgery of the pleural cavity performed with visualization via video transmission.Empyema: Presence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity.Talc: Finely powdered native hydrous magnesium silicate. It is used as a dusting powder, either alone or with starch or boric acid, for medicinal and toilet preparations. It is also an excipient and filler for pills, tablets, and for dusting tablet molds. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Pleurodesis: The production of adhesions between the parietal and visceral pleura. The procedure is used in the treatment of bronchopleural fistulas, malignant pleural effusions, and pneumothorax and often involves instillation of chemicals or other agents into the pleural space causing, in effect, a pleuritis that seals the air leak. (From Fishman, Pulmonary Diseases, 2d ed, p2233 & Dorland, 27th ed)Hemopneumothorax: Collection of air and blood in the pleural cavity.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Pleural DiseasesWounds, Stab: Penetrating wounds caused by a pointed object.Hemostatic Techniques: Techniques for controlling bleeding.Wounds, Penetrating: Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.Thoracoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the pleural cavity.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Fistula: Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.