A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.
Spinal Cord Compression
Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Spinal Cord Injuries
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.
Procedures to repair or stabilize vertebral fractures, especially compression fractures accomplished by injecting BONE CEMENTS into the fractured VERTEBRAE.
Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
Crumbling or smashing of cancellous BONE by forces acting parallel to the long axis of bone. It is applied particularly to vertebral body fractures (SPINAL FRACTURES). (Blauvelt and Nelson, A Manual of Orthopedic Terminology, 1994, p4)
Deficient development or degeneration of a portion of the VERTEBRA, usually in the pars interarticularis (the bone bridge between the superior and inferior facet joints of the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE) leading to SPONDYLOLISTHESIS.
Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.
Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.
Bone and Bones
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
Orthopedic Fixation Devices
Procedures to restore vertebrae to their original shape following vertebral compression fractures by inflating a balloon inserted into the vertebrae, followed by removal of the balloon and injection of BONE CEMENTS to fill the cavity.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.