Tetralones: A group of TETRAHYDRONAPHTHALENES containing a keto oxygen.Winteraceae: A plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The wood lacks water-conducting cells but has acrid sap. The leaves are gland-dotted, leathery, and smooth-margined. The flowers are small, in clusters, with two to six sepals, petals in two or more series, several stamens, and one to several carpels.Neutral Red: A vital dye used as an indicator and biological stain. Various adverse effects have been observed in biological systems.Bioelectric Energy Sources: Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Proton-Motive Force: Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Electrolysis: Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.Aldehyde-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.Thermometers: Measuring instruments for determining the temperature of matter. Most thermometers used in the field of medicine are designed for measuring body temperature or for use in the clinical laboratory. (From UMDNS, 1999)Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Trimethylsilyl Compounds: Organic silicon derivatives used to characterize hydroxysteroids, nucleosides, and related compounds. Trimethylsilyl esters of amino acids are used in peptide synthesis.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Sulfenic Acids: Oxy acids of sulfur with the general formula RSOH, where R is an alkyl or aryl group such as CH3. They are often encountered as esters and halides. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lewis Bases: Any chemical species which acts as an electron-pair donor in a chemical bonding reaction with a LEWIS ACID.Lewis Acids: Any chemical species which accepts an electron-pair from a LEWIS BASE in a chemical bonding reaction.Cinchona Alkaloids: Alkaloids extracted from various species of Cinchona.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Ruthenium: A hard, brittle, grayish-white rare earth metal with an atomic symbol Ru, atomic number 44, and atomic weight 101.07. It is used as a catalyst and hardener for PLATINUM and PALLADIUM.Imino Sugars: Sugars in which the OXYGEN is replaced by a NITROGEN atom. This substitution prevents normal METABOLISM resulting in inhibition of GLYCOSIDASES and GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASES.Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Bender-Gestalt Test: A psychological test consisting of nine geometric designs on cards. The subject is asked to redraw them from memory after each one is presented individually.Polyketides: Natural compounds containing alternating carbonyl and methylene groups (beta-polyketones), bioenergenetically derived from repeated condensation of acetyl coenzyme A via malonyl coenzyme A, in a process similar to fatty acid synthesis.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Alkadienes: Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Sodium Bicarbonate: A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.Distillation: A chemical process for separating the components of a liquid mixture by boiling and collecting condensed vapors.Magnesium Sulfate: A small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083)Steam: Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Coal Ash: Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.Steam Bath: Therapy of sitting in a hot steamy room followed by a cool bath or shower.Azo CompoundsResearch: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Paramphistomatidae: A family of flukes of the class Trematoda found in the intestinal tract and liver of animals and man. Some of the genera are Homalagaster, Gastrodiscus, Paramphistomum, Watsonius, Nilocotyle, Gigantocotyle, Gastrothylax, Macropotrema, Ceylonocotyle, Zygocotyle, Cotylophoron, and Calicophoron.Fasciolidae: A family of flukes of the class Trematoda occurring primarily in the liver of animals and man. There are six genera: Fasciola, Fasciolopsis, Fascioloides, Tenuifasciola, Parafasciolopsis, and Protofasciola. The adult form of Fasciolopsis occurs in the intestines of pigs and man.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Butadienes: Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.