Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.
Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)
The organization, management, and assumption of risks of a business or enterprise, usually implying an element of change or challenge and a new opportunity.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.
An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.
An organizational enterprise between a public sector agency, federal, state or local, and a private sector entity. Skills and assets of each sector are shared to deliver a service or facility for the benefit or use of the general public.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
A genus of gram-negative, oxidase-positive, nonfermentative rods which are motile by means of a single flagellum. Afipia felis and BARTONELLA HENSELAE are causative agents of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
For-profit enterprise with relatively few to moderate number of employees and low to moderate volume of sales.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.
Antineoplastic agent effective against myelogenous leukemia in experimental animals. Also acts as an inhibitor of animal S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase.
A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
The fraudulent misrepresentation of the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Discussions, descriptions or catalogs of public displays or items representative of a given subject.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Short-lived elementary particles found in cosmic radiation or produced from nuclear disintegration. Their mass is between that of protons and electrons and they can be negative, positive, or neutral. pi-Mesons (pions) are heavier than mu-mesons (muons) and are proposed for cancer radiotherapy because their capture and disintegration by matter produces powerful, but short-lived, secondary radiation.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
Organizations involved in all aspects of health planning activities.
Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.