Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Needle-Exchange Programs: Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.Medical Waste Disposal: Management, removal, and elimination of biologic, infectious, pathologic, and dental waste. The concept includes blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special control and handling. Disposal may take place where the waste is generated or elsewhere.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Disposable Equipment: Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Legislation, Pharmacy: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of pharmacy, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Law Enforcement: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.Equipment Reuse: Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Drug Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for drugs and BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS. These include those in ampule, capsule, tablet, solution or other forms. Packaging includes immediate-containers, secondary-containers, and cartons. In the United States, such packaging is controlled under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which also stipulates requirements for tamper-resistance and child-resistance. Similar laws govern use elsewhere. (From Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1 Section 210, 1993) DRUG LABELING is also available.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Injections, Jet: The injection of solutions into the skin by compressed air devices so that only the solution pierces the skin.Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS; MEDICAL DEVICES; corrective LENSES; and a variety of other medical remedies.Asepsis: The prevention of access by infecting organisms to the locus of potential infection.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Harm Reduction: The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.Cerumen: The yellow or brown waxy secretions produced by vestigial apocrine sweat glands in the external ear canal.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Drug Storage: The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.Blood-Borne Pathogens: Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Medical Device Legislation: Laws and regulations pertaining to devices used in medicine, proposed for enactment, or enacted by a legislative body.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Lubricants: Compounds that provide LUBRICATION between surfaces in order to reduce FRICTION.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Mucopolysaccharidosis II: Systemic lysosomal storage disease marked by progressive physical deterioration and caused by a deficiency of L-sulfoiduronate sulfatase. This disease differs from MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS I by slower progression, lack of corneal clouding, and X-linked rather than autosomal recessive inheritance. The mild form produces near-normal intelligence and life span. The severe form usually causes death by age 15.Iduronate Sulfatase: An enzyme that specifically cleaves the ester sulfate of iduronic acid. Its deficiency has been demonstrated in Hunter's syndrome, which is characterized by an excess of dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate. EC A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Hate: An enduring attitude or sentiment toward persons or objects manifested by anger, aversion and desire for the misfortune of others.Philately: Study of stamps or postal markings. It usually refers to the design and commemorative aspects of the stamp.Friction: Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.Medicine, Arabic: Traditional Arabic methods used in medicine in the ARAB WORLD.Rats, Hairless: Mutant strains of rats that produce little or no hair. Several different homozygous recessive mutations can cause hairlessness in rats including rnu/rnu (Rowett nude), fz/fz (fuzzy), shn/shn (shorn), and nznu/nznu (New Zealand nude). Note that while NUDE RATS are often hairless, they are most characteristically athymic.