Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Steel: A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Decontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Stainless Steel: Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Asepsis: The prevention of access by infecting organisms to the locus of potential infection.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Surgery, Computer-Assisted: Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.Laparoscopes: ENDOSCOPES for examining the abdominal and pelvic organs in the peritoneal cavity.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome: A rare transmissible encephalopathy most prevalent between the ages of 50 and 70 years. Affected individuals may present with sleep disturbances, personality changes, ATAXIA; APHASIA, visual loss, weakness, muscle atrophy, MYOCLONUS, progressive dementia, and death within one year of disease onset. A familial form exhibiting autosomal dominant inheritance and a new variant CJD (potentially associated with ENCEPHALOPATHY, BOVINE SPONGIFORM) have been described. Pathological features include prominent cerebellar and cerebral cortical spongiform degeneration and the presence of PRIONS. (From N Engl J Med, 1998 Dec 31;339(27))Microsurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.Prions: Small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify NUCLEIC ACIDS and contain an abnormal isoform of a cellular protein which is a major and necessary component. The abnormal (scrapie) isoform is PrPSc (PRPSC PROTEINS) and the cellular isoform PrPC (PRPC PROTEINS). The primary amino acid sequence of the two isoforms is identical. Human diseases caused by prions include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER SYNDROME; and INSOMNIA, FATAL FAMILIAL.Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive: Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.Dental Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Suture Anchors: Implants used in arthroscopic surgery and other orthopedic procedures to attach soft tissue to bone. One end of a suture is tied to soft tissue and the other end to the implant. The anchors are made of a variety of materials including titanium, stainless steel, or absorbable polymers.Sutures: Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Cranial Sutures: A type of fibrous joint between bones of the head.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Inventors: Persons or entities that introduce a novel composition, device, or process, as well as improvements thereof.Bandages: Material used for wrapping or binding any part of the body.Compression Bandages: Strips of elastic material used to apply pressure to body parts to control EDEMA and aid circulation.Vaginal Fistula: An abnormal anatomical passage that connects the VAGINA to other organs, such as the bladder (VESICOVAGINAL FISTULA) or the rectum (RECTOVAGINAL FISTULA).FloridaOhioArchivesElectrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Thermal Conductivity: The heat flow across a surface per unit area per unit time, divided by the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Operating Tables: A raised flat surface on which a patient is placed during surgical procedures.Magnesium Oxide: Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.Lithotripsy: The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.Diamond: Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Disposable Equipment: Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Obstetrical Forceps: Surgical instrument designed to extract the newborn by the head from the maternal passages without injury to it or the mother.Orthopedic Fixation Devices: Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Tendon Injuries: Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures.New JerseyObstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Gynecology: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.