A gram-positive organism found in dental plaque, in blood, on heart valves in subacute endocarditis, and infrequently in saliva and throat specimens. L-forms are associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A thin protein film on the surface of DENTAL ENAMEL. It is widely believed to result from the selective adsorption of precursor proteins present in SALIVA onto tooth surfaces, and to reduce microbial adherence to the TEETH.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commensal in the respiratory tract.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria that is numerous in the mouth and throat. It is a common cause of endocarditis and is also implicated in dental plaque formation.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from pigs. It is a pathogen of swine but rarely occurs in humans.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
ENDOCARDIUM infection that is usually caused by STREPTOCOCCUS. Subacute infective endocarditis evolves over weeks and months with modest toxicity and rare metastatic infection.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.
Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from abscesses in submaxillary glands and mucopurulent discharges of the upper respiratory tract of horses. This organism belongs to Group C streptococci with regards to antigen response and is known to cause strangles. The subspecies S. zooepidemicus is also considered a pathogen of horses.
A long-acting barbiturate that depresses most metabolic processes at high doses. It is used as a hypnotic and sedative and may induce dependence. Barbital is also used in veterinary practice for central nervous system depression.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A strong oxidizing agent.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
A species of thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria found in MILK and milk products.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining penicillin G with PROCAINE.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.