Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.BooksComputer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Data Display: The visual display of data in a man-machine system. An example is when data is called from the computer and transmitted to a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY or LIQUID CRYSTAL display.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.TexasVisual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Evoked Potentials, Visual: The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.Air Ionization: The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Anniversaries and Special Events: Occasions to commemorate an event or occasions designated for a specific purpose.GeorgiaComputer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Georgia (Republic)Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Computer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.Theilovirus: A species of CARDIOVIRUS which contains three strains: Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus, and Rat encephalomyelitis virus.Factor XII: Stable blood coagulation factor activated by contact with the subendothelial surface of an injured vessel. Along with prekallikrein, it serves as the contact factor that initiates the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Kallikrein activates factor XII to XIIa. Deficiency of factor XII, also called the Hageman trait, leads to increased incidence of thromboembolic disease. Mutations in the gene for factor XII that appear to increase factor XII amidolytic activity are associated with HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPE III.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Operations Research: A group of techniques developed to apply scientific methods and tools to solve the problems of DECISION MAKING in complex organizations and systems. Operations research searches for optimal solutions in situations of conflicting GOALS and makes use of mathematical models from which solutions for actual problems may be derived. (From Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)