Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology related to EXERCISE or ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE.Elder Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of adults aged 65 years of age and older.Dental Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the DENTITION.Digestive System and Oral Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and DENTITION as a whole or of any of its parts.Reproductive and Urinary Physiological Phenomena: Physiology of the human and animal body, male or female, in the processes and characteristics of REPRODUCTION and the URINARY TRACT.Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena: Properties, and processes of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM or their parts.Circulatory and Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Functional processes and properties characteristic of the BLOOD; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.Integumentary System Physiological Phenomena: The properties and relationships and biological processes that characterize the nature and function of the SKIN and its appendages.Reproductive Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.Physiological Phenomena: The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena: Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.Sports Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.Athletic Performance: Carrying out of specific physical routines or procedures by one who is trained or skilled in physical activity. Performance is influenced by a combination of physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors.Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Veterinary Sports Medicine: The field of veterinary medicine concerned with PHYSICAL FITNESS of animals in sports (horse racing, dog racing, etc.) and the diagnosis and treatment of sports injuries in animals.Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Female Athlete Triad Syndrome: A condition of competitive female athletes in which there are interrelated problems of EATING DISORDERS; AMENORRHEA; and OSTEOPOROSIS.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Athletes: Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.Thermogenesis: The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.BooksDictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Preventive Medicine: A medical specialty primarily concerned with prevention of disease (PRIMARY PREVENTION) and the promotion and preservation of health in the individual.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Small Business: For-profit enterprise with relatively few to moderate number of employees and low to moderate volume of sales.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.CaliforniaUniversities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Animals, ZooMexicoResearch: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Football: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).Plasma Volume: Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.