Splenorenal Shunt, Surgical: Anastomosis of splenic vein to renal vein to relieve portal hypertension.Splenic Vein: Vein formed by the union (at the hilus of the spleen) of several small veins from the stomach, pancreas, spleen and mesentery.Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical: Surgical venous shunt between the portal and systemic circulation to effect decompression of the portal circulation. It is performed primarily in the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices resulting from portal hypertension. Types of shunt include portacaval, splenorenal, mesocaval, splenocaval, left gastric-caval (coronary-caval), portarenal, umbilicorenal, and umbilicocaval.Renal Veins: Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.Esophageal and Gastric Varices: Dilated blood vessels in the ESOPHAGUS or GASTRIC FUNDUS that shunt blood from the portal circulation (PORTAL SYSTEM) to the systemic venous circulation. Often they are observed in individuals with portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Portacaval Shunt, Surgical: Surgical portasystemic shunt between the portal vein and inferior vena cava.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Hypersplenism: Condition characterized by splenomegaly, some reduction in the number of circulating blood cells in the presence of a normal or hyperactive bone marrow, and the potential for reversal by splenectomy.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic: A type of surgical portasystemic shunt to reduce portal hypertension with associated complications of esophageal varices and ascites. It is performed percutaneously through the jugular vein and involves the creation of an intrahepatic shunt between the hepatic vein and portal vein. The channel is maintained by a metallic stent. The procedure can be performed in patients who have failed sclerotherapy and is an additional option to the surgical techniques of portocaval, mesocaval, and splenorenal shunts. It takes one to three hours to perform. (JAMA 1995;273(23):1824-30)Portography: Examination of the portal circulation by the use of X-ray films after injection of radiopaque material.Portal System: A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.Splenectomy: Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Sclerosing Solutions: Chemical agents injected into blood vessels and lymphatic sinuses to shrink or cause localized THROMBOSIS; FIBROSIS, and obliteration of the vessels. This treatment is applied in a number of conditions such as VARICOSE VEINS; HEMORRHOIDS; GASTRIC VARICES; ESOPHAGEAL VARICES; PEPTIC ULCER HEMORRHAGE.Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt: Surgical creation of a communication between a cerebral ventricle and the peritoneum by means of a plastic tube to permit drainage of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts: Tubes inserted to create communication between a cerebral ventricle and the internal jugular vein. Their emplacement permits draining of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus or other condition leading to fluid accumulation in the ventricles.Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Peritoneovenous Shunt: An operation for the continuous emptying of ascitic fluid into the venous system. Fluid removal is based on intraperitoneal and intrathoracic superior vena cava pressure differentials and is performed via a pressure-sensitive one-way valve connected to a tube traversing the subcutaneous tissue of the chest wall to the neck where it enters the internal jugular vein and terminates in the superior vena cava. It is used in the treatment of intractable ascites.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.