The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The human being as a non-anatomical and non-zoological entity. The emphasis is on the philosophical or artistic treatment of the human being, and includes lay and social attitudes toward the body in history. (From J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
Unequal cell division that results in daughter cells of different sizes.
Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.
The species Physeter catodon (also called Physeter macrocephalus), in the family Physeteridae. The common name is derived from the milky wax substance in its head (spermaceti). The species also produces an intestinal secretion AMBERGRIS, which was previously used in perfumes. The sperm whale is the largest toothed MAMMAL in the world.
The species Megaptera novaeangliae, in the family Balaenopteridae, characterized by its huge flippers and the arching of their back when diving. They are also known for their breaching and singing.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
The species Balaenoptera physalus, in the family Balaenopteridae, characterized by a large, strongly curved, dorsal fin. It is the second largest of the WHALES, highly migratory, but rarely seen near the shore.
The species Balaenoptera acutorostrata, in the family Balaenopteridae. It is the smallest of the WHALES in the family and though mainly oceanic, is often found in coastal waters including bays and estuaries.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
A syndrome characterized by growth retardation, severe MENTAL RETARDATION, short stature, a low-pitched growling cry, brachycephaly, low-set ears, webbed neck, carp mouth, depressed nasal bridge, bushy eyebrows meeting at the midline, hirsutism, and malformations of the hands. The condition may occur sporadically or be associated with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance or duplication of the long arm of chromosome 3. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p231)
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.
The structural and functional changes by which SPERMATOZOA become capable of oocyte FERTILIZATION. It normally requires exposing the sperm to the female genital tract for a period of time to bring about increased SPERM MOTILITY and the ACROSOME REACTION before fertilization in the FALLOPIAN TUBES can take place.
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.