Space Flight: Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.Astronauts: Members of spacecraft crew including those who travel in space, and those in training for space flight. (From Webster, 10th ed; Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Weightlessness: Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Aerospace Medicine: That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)Weightlessness Simulation: Condition under normal Earth gravity where the force of gravity itself is not actually altered but its influence or effect may be modified and studied. (From ASGSB Bull 1992;5(2):27)Space Motion Sickness: Disorder characterized by nausea, vomiting, and dizziness, possibly in response to vestibular disorientation or fluid shifts associated with space flight. (From Webster's New World Dictionary)Decalcification, Pathologic: The loss of calcium salts from bones and teeth. Bacteria may be responsible for this occurrence in teeth. Old age may be a factor contributing to calcium loss, as is the presence of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.Weightlessness Countermeasures: Techniques and routines designed to prevent or reverse unwanted effects of weightlessness experienced during actual and simulated space flight, including physiologic changes related to removal of gravitational loading. Specific measures include creation of artificial gravity, exercise, low-level lower body negative pressure, and use of anti-deconditioning devices. (From Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp294-297)Space Simulation: An environment simulating one or more parameters of the space environment, applied in testing space systems or components. Often, a closed chamber is used, capable of approximating the vacuum and normal environments of space. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988) This also includes simulated EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY studies in atmosphere exposure chambers or water tanks.Cosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.Foods, Specialized: Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration: An independent Federal agency established in 1958. It conducts research for the solution of problems of flight within and outside the Earth's atmosphere and develops, constructs, tests, and operates aeronautical and space vehicles. (From U.S. Government Manual, 1993)Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Gravitation: Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Dimenhydrinate: A drug combination that contains diphenhydramine and theophylline. It is used for treating VERTIGO, MOTION SICKNESS, and NAUSEA associated with PREGNANCY.Bed Rest: Confinement of an individual to bed for therapeutic or experimental reasons.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.WingUSSREncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Aviation: Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Accidents, AviationBrazilDesert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nobel PrizeAwards and PrizesLife Support Systems: Systems that provide all or most of the items necessary for maintaining life and health. Provisions are made for the supplying of oxygen, food, water, temperature and pressure control, disposition of carbon dioxide and body waste. The milieu may be a spacecraft, a submarine, or the surface of the moon. In medical care, usually under hospital conditions, LIFE SUPPORT CARE is available. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary)Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.JapanSuperstitions: A belief or practice which lacks adequate basis for proof; an embodiment of fear of the unknown, magic, and ignorance.Professional Staff Committees: Committees of professional personnel who have responsibility for determining policies, procedures, and controls related to professional matters in health facilities.Committee Membership: The composition of a committee; the state or status of being a member of a committee.FloridaIndianaEnergy Drinks: Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.WashingtonNeedles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Automobile Driver Examination: Government required written and driving test given to individuals prior to obtaining an operator's license.Seat Belts: Restraining belts fastened to the frame of automobiles, aircraft, or other vehicles, and strapped around the person occupying the seat in the car or plane, intended to prevent the person from being thrown forward or out of the vehicle in case of sudden deceleration.Insanity Defense: A legal concept that an accused is not criminally responsible if, at the time of committing the act, the person was laboring under such a defect of reason from disease of the mind as not to know the nature and quality of the act done or if the act was known, to not have known that what was done was wrong. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed)AlabamaArchivesTelevision: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)NewsNewspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.