Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.
The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.
Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.
Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.
The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.
Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.
The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.
Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.
Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.
Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.
Government sponsored social insurance programs.
The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.
A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.
The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Involvement in community activities or programs.
Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.
Behavioral or attitudinal compliance with recognized social patterns or standards.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.
The state of estrangement individuals feel in cultural settings that they view as foreign, unpredictable, or unacceptable.
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.
A branch of medicine concerned with the role of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence, prevention and treatment of disease.
Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.
The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.
The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (http://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/).
A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.
Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Persons whom one knows, likes, and trusts.
Use of all social work processes in the treatment of patients in a psychiatric or mental health setting.
A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.
Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
A person's view of himself.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
The state of feeling sad or dejected as a result of lack of companionship or being separated from others.
Non-acceptance, negative attitudes, hostility or excessive criticism of the individual which may precipitate feelings of rejection.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
Sexual activities of animals.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Group behavior toward others by virtue of their group membership.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
The study of the social determinants and social effects of health and disease, and of the social structure of medical institutions or professions.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.
A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.
An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.
The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
The ability to understand and manage emotions and to use emotional knowledge to enhance thought and deal effectively with tasks. Components of emotional intelligence include empathy, self-motivation, self-awareness, self-regulation, and social skill. Emotional intelligence is a measurement of one's ability to socialize or relate to others.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
The absence of appropriate stimuli in the physical or social environment which are necessary for the emotional, social, and intellectual development of the individual.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.
Methods for quantitatively assessing and measuring interpersonal and group relationships.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.
It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Sounds used in animal communication.
Discomfort and partial inhibition of the usual forms of behavior when in the presence of others.
An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.
Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
A state of social disorganization and demoralization in society which is largely the result of disharmony between cultural goals and the means for attaining them. This may be reflected in the behavior of the individual in many ways - non-conformity, social withdrawal, deviant behavior, etc.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.
Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.
The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.
The status of health in urban populations.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The individual's experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied.
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
Size and composition of the family.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Living facilities for humans.
A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.
Hospital department responsible for administering and providing social services to patients and their families.
Educational institutions.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An independent agency within the Executive Branch of the United States Government. It administers a national social insurance program whereby employees, employers, and the self-employed pay contributions into pooled trust funds. Part of the contributions go into a separate hospital insurance trust fund for workers at age 65 to provide help with medical expenses. Other programs include the supplemental social security income program for the aged, blind, and disabled and the Old Age Survivors and Disability Insurance Program. It became an independent agency March 31, 1995. It had previously been part of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, later the Department of Health and Human Services. (From United States Government Manual, 1994-95)
Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).
Female parents, human or animal.
Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.
Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.
Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.