Parasomnias characterized by behavioral abnormalities that occur during the transition between wakefulness and sleep (or between sleep and wakefulness).
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Disruptions of the rhythmic cycle of bodily functions or activities.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Dyssomnias associated with disruption of the normal 24 hour sleep wake cycle secondary to travel (e.g., JET LAG SYNDROME), shift work, or other causes.
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
The measurement and recording of MOTOR ACTIVITY to assess rest/activity cycles.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.
G-protein-coupled NEUROPEPTIDE RECEPTORS that have specificity for OREXINS and play a role in appetite control, and sleep-wake cycles. Two principle receptor types exist, each having a specificity for OREXIN A and OREXIN B peptide subtypes.
A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.
A condition characterized by transient weakness or paralysis of somatic musculature triggered by an emotional stimulus or physical exertion. Cataplexy is frequently associated with NARCOLEPSY. During a cataplectic attack, there is a marked reduction in muscle tone similar to the normal physiologic hypotonia that accompanies rapid eye movement sleep (SLEEP, REM). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p396)
A chronobiologic disorder resulting from rapid travel across a number of time zones, characterized by insomnia or hypersomnolence, fatigue, behavioral symptoms, headaches, and gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Cooper, Sleep, 1994, pp593-8)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
The use of a treatment material (tissue conditioner) to re-establish tone and health to irritated oral soft tissue, usually applied to the edentulous alveolar ridge.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)
Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
Bouts of physical irritability or movement alternating with periods of quiescence. It includes biochemical activity and hormonal activity which may be cellular. These cycles are shorter than 24 hours and include sleep-wakefulness cycles and the periodic activation of the digestive system.
Tendency toward involvement in accidents. Implies certain personality characteristics which predispose to accidents.
Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.