Skates (Fish): The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Elasmobranchii: A subclass of cartilaginous fish comprising the SHARKS; rays; skates (SKATES (FISH);), and sawfish. Elasmobranchs are typically predaceous, relying more on smell (the olfactory capsules are relatively large) than sight (the eyes are relatively small) for obtaining their food.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Electric Fish: Fishes which generate an electric discharge. The voltage of the discharge varies from weak to strong in various groups of fish. The ELECTRIC ORGAN and electroplax are of prime interest in this group. They occur in more than one family.Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.Skating: Using ice skates, roller skates, or skateboards in racing or other competition or for recreation.Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Fish Products: Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Medicare Assignment: Concept referring to the standardized fees for services rendered by health care providers, e.g., laboratories and physicians, and reimbursement for those services under Medicare Part B. It includes acceptance by the physician.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.New YorkNeurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.New York CityCod Liver Oil: Oil obtained from fresh livers of the cod family, Gadidae. It is a source of VITAMIN A and VITAMIN D.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Drowning: Death that occurs as a result of anoxia or heart arrest, associated with immersion in liquid.MassachusettsAccidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Tetrachloroethylene: A chlorinated hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent and cooling liquid in electrical transformers. It is a potential carcinogen.Suggestion: The uncritical acceptance of an idea or plan of action.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Deception: The act of deceiving or the fact of being deceived.NewsNewspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Totiviridae: A family of RNA viruses that infect fungi and protozoa. There are three genera: TOTIVIRUS; GIARDIAVIRUS; and LEISHMANIAVIRUS.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Hagfishes: Common name for a family of eel-shaped jawless fishes (Myxinidae), the only family in the order MYXINIFORMES. They are not true vertebrates.Jaw DiseasesOceanography: The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Aminophylline: A drug combination that contains THEOPHYLLINE and ethylenediamine. It is more soluble in water than theophylline but has similar pharmacologic actions. It's most common use is in bronchial asthma, but it has been investigated for several other applications.Spalax: A genus of blind, subterranean MOLE RATS, in the subfamily Spalacidae, family MURIDAE, used as a animal model in neurophysiology. There are at least five different species described, all found in the Ukraine.Carps: Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.Zoology: The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Pastinaca: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. The roots are used as food.Group III Phospholipases A2: A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 with specificity for PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE. It occurs as a component of VENOMS and as a mammalian secretory phospholipase A2. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a long amino-terminal domain, a conserved group III-specific domain, and a long carboxyl-terminal domain.Phospholipases A2: Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Phospholipases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.Phospholipases A: Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.