A system of hand gestures used for communication by the deaf or by people speaking different languages.
The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.
The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.
The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Method of nonverbal communication utilizing hand movements as speech equivalents.
Movement of a part of the body for the purpose of communication.
The process by which an observer comprehends speech by watching the movements of the speaker's lips without hearing the speaker's voice.
The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.
A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the administrative, intellectual, social, and cultural domination of the Arab empire. The Arab world, under the impetus of Islam, by the eighth century A.D., extended from Arabia in the Middle East to all of northern Africa, southern Spain, Sardinia, and Sicily. Close contact was maintained with Greek and Jewish culture. While the principal service of the Arabs to medicine was the preservation of Greek culture, the Arabs themselves were the originators of algebra, chemistry, geology, and many of the refinements of civilization. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed, p260; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p126)
Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.
A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Conversion from one language to another language.
The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.
Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.
The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.
Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.
Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.
Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
Skills in the use of language which lead to proficiency in written or spoken communication.
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.
A game in which two parties of players provided with curved or hooked sticks seek to drive a ball or puck through opposite goals. This applies to either ice hockey or field hockey.
Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.
The collection, preparation, and distribution of news and related commentary and feature materials through such media as pamphlets, newsletters, newspapers, magazines, radio, motion pictures, television, and books. While originally applied to the reportage of current events in printed form, specifically newspapers, with the advent of radio and television the use of the term has broadened to include all printed and electronic communication dealing with current affairs.
The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Content, management, editing, policies, and printing of dental periodicals such as journals, newsletters, tabloids, and bulletins.
A voluntary contract between two or more dentists who may or may not share responsibility for the care of patients, with proportional sharing of profits and losses.