Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.
MNSs Blood-Group System
Sialic Acid Binding Immunoglobulin-like Lectins
A family of SIALIC ACID binding proteins found in vertebrate species. They are transmembrane proteins which act as cell surface receptors for a variety of sialylated GLYCOCONJUGATES. While a subset of siglec protein subtypes are evolutionarily conserved between mammalian species, there are many others that are species specific.
Blood Group Antigens
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Wheat Germ Agglutinins
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
Cytidine Monophosphate N-Acetylneuraminic Acid
A nucleoside monophosphate sugar which donates N-acetylneuraminic acid to the terminal sugar of a ganglioside or glycoprotein.
Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 2
A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Dictionaries as Topic
Dry Eye Syndromes
Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.
Dryness of the eye surfaces caused by deficiency of tears or conjunctival secretions. It may be associated with vitamin A deficiency, trauma, or any condition in which the eyelids do not close completely.
Drying and inflammation of the conjunctiva as a result of insufficient lacrimal secretion. When found in association with XEROSTOMIA and polyarthritis, it is called SJOGREN'S SYNDROME.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.