The number of males per 100 females.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.
Methods for controlling genetic SEX of offspring.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
Sexual activities of animals.
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
Exposure of the male parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring.
A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.
In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The sequence in which children are born into the family.
People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
Mechanical food dispensing machines.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.
Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.
Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.
Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.
The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.
The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.
The application of knowledge to the food industry.
A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.
Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.