The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.
Serologic tests for syphilis.
Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
Infection by round worms of the genus TOXOCARA, usually found in wild and domesticated cats and dogs and foxes, except for the larvae, which may produce visceral and ocular larva migrans in man.
Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.
The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.
A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
A genus of ascarid nematodes commonly parasitic in the intestines of cats and dogs.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY). This organism can also be a cause of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.
Infections with bacteria of the genus LEPTOSPIRA.
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A species of parasitic nematode found in the intestine of dogs. Lesions in the brain, liver, eye, kidney, and lung are caused by migrating larvae. In humans, these larvae do not follow normal patterns and may produce visceral larva migrans (LARVA MIGRANS, VISCERAL).
Transglutaminases catalyze cross-linking of proteins at a GLUTAMINE in one chain with LYSINE in another chain. They include keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1 or TGK), tissue transglutaminase (TGM2 or TGC), plasma transglutaminase involved with coagulation (FACTOR XIII and FACTOR XIIIa), hair follicle transglutaminase, and prostate transglutaminase. Although structures differ, they share an active site (YGQCW) and strict CALCIUM dependence.
An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that grows preferentially in the vacuoles of the host cell. It is the etiological agent of Q FEVER.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A species of hydatid tapeworm (class CESTODA) in the family Taeniidae, whose adult form infects the DIGESTIVE TRACT of DOGS, other canines, and CATS. The larval form infects SHEEP; PIGS; HORSES; and may infect humans, where it migrates to various organs and forms permanent HYDATID CYSTS.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A genus of aerobic, helical spirochetes, some species of which are pathogenic, others free-living or saprophytic.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDOPHILA.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
A diet which is devoid of GLUTENS from WHEAT; BARLEY; RYE; and other wheat-related varieties. The diet is designed to reduce exposure to those proteins in gluten that trigger INFLAMMATION of the small intestinal mucosa in patients with CELIAC DISEASE.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
Subacute inflammation of the inguinal lymph glands caused by certain immunotypes of CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. It is a sexually transmitted disease in the U.S. but is more widespread in developing countries. It is distinguished from granuloma venereum (see GRANULOMA INGUINALE), which is caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic tapeworms of the genus ECHINOCOCCUS, such as Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis. Ingested Echinococcus ova burrow into the intestinal mucosa. The larval migration to the liver via the PORTAL VEIN leads to watery vesicles (HYDATID CYST).
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS associated with genital infections (HERPES GENITALIS). It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and close personal contact.
A disease of the CARDIAC MUSCLE developed subsequent to the initial protozoan infection by TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI. After infection, less than 10% develop acute illness such as MYOCARDITIS (mostly in children). The disease then enters a latent phase without clinical symptoms until about 20 years later. Myocardial symptoms of advanced CHAGAS DISEASE include conduction defects (HEART BLOCK) and CARDIOMEGALY.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Simple protein, one of the prolamines, derived from the gluten of wheat, rye, etc. May be separated into 4 discrete electrophoretic fractions. It is the toxic factor associated with CELIAC DISEASE.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Infection with nematodes of the genus STRONGYLOIDES. The presence of larvae may produce pneumonitis and the presence of adult worms in the intestine could lead to moderate to severe diarrhea.
A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.
Infections by the genus BARTONELLA. Bartonella bacilliformis can cause acute febrile anemia, designated Oroya fever, and a benign skin eruption, called verruga peruana. BARTONELLA QUINTANA causes TRENCH FEVER, while BARTONELLA HENSELAE is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY) and is also one of the causes of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.
Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.
A serovar of the bacterial species LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS, whose primary hosts include CATTLE and SWINE.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
Infections of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; or MENINGES caused by HELMINTHS (parasitic worms).
Helminth infection of the lung caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.
A common, acute infection usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN). There is an increase in mononuclear white blood cells and other atypical lymphocytes, generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and occasionally hepatomegaly with hepatitis.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
GASTRITIS with atrophy of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS, and the mucosal glands leading to ACHLORHYDRIA. Atrophic gastritis usually progresses from chronic gastritis.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Infection with CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI (formerly Chlamydia psittaci), transmitted to humans by inhalation of dust-borne contaminated nasal secretions or excreta of infected BIRDS. This infection results in a febrile illness characterized by PNEUMONITIS and systemic manifestations.
Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.
Impaired digestion, especially after eating.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.
A compound that, along with its isomer, Cleland's reagent (DITHIOTHREITOL), is used for the protection of sulfhydryl groups against oxidation to disulfides and for the reduction of disulfides to sulfhydryl groups.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The type species of ERYTHROVIRUS and the etiological agent of ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM, a disease most commonly seen in school-age children.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.
Single or multiple areas of PUS due to infection by any ameboid protozoa (AMEBIASIS). A common form is caused by the ingestion of ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.
A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.
Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects swine. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork.
A nitrofuran thiazine that has been used against TRYPANOSOMIASIS.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A self-limiting bacterial infection of the regional lymph nodes caused by AFIPIA felis, a gram-negative bacterium recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and by BARTONELLA HENSELAE. It usually arises one or more weeks following a feline scratch, with raised inflammatory nodules at the site of the scratch being the primary symptom.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.
The procedure established to evaluate the health status and risk factors of the potential DONORS of biological materials. Donors are selected based on the principles that their health will not be compromised in the process, and the donated materials, such as TISSUES or organs, are safe for reuse in the recipients.
Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
Infections of the central nervous system caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM which present with a variety of clinical syndromes. The initial phase of infection usually causes a mild or asymptomatic meningeal reaction. The meningovascular form may present acutely as BRAIN INFARCTION. The infection may also remain subclinical for several years. Late syndromes include general paresis; TABES DORSALIS; meningeal syphilis; syphilitic OPTIC ATROPHY; and spinal syphilis. General paresis is characterized by progressive DEMENTIA; DYSARTHRIA; TREMOR; MYOCLONUS; SEIZURES; and Argyll-Robertson pupils. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp722-8)
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A genus of parasitic nematodes widely distributed as intestinal parasites of mammals.
A species of parasitic nematode widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. The females and their larvae inhabit the mucosa of the intestinal tract, where they cause ulceration and diarrhea.
Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 3 that is genetically similar to STLV-3.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Antibodies, especially IGE, that bind to tissue of the same species so that ANTIGENS induce release of HISTAMINE and other vasoactive agents. HYPERSENSITIVITY is the clinical manifestation.
A chronic granulomatous infection caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. The granulomatous lesions are manifested in the skin, the mucous membranes, and the peripheral nerves. Two polar or principal types are lepromatous and tuberculoid.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
A north temperate species of tapeworm (CESTODA) whose adult form infects FOXES and wild RODENTS. The larval form can infect humans producing HEPATIC HYDATID CYSTS.
Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.
Antibodies specific to STREPTOLYSINS which indicate STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Syphilis acquired in utero and manifested by any of several characteristic tooth (Hutchinson's teeth) or bone malformations and by active mucocutaneous syphilis at birth or shortly thereafter. Ocular and neurologic changes may also occur.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Infections by the genus RICKETTSIA.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining the sodium salt of penicillin G with N,N'-dibenzylethylenediamine.
A systemic non-venereal infection of the tropics caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM subspecies pertenue.
Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.
Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.
A deep type of gyrate erythema that follows a bite by an ixodid tick; it is a stage-1 manifestation of LYME DISEASE. The site of the bite is characterized by a red papule that expands peripherally as a nonscaling, palpable band that clears centrally. This condition is often associated with systemic symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, backache, and stiff neck.
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
Pathological processes involving the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.
A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)
A species of gram-negative bacteria in which man is the primary host and the human body louse, Pediculus humanus, the principal vector. It is the etiological agent of TRENCH FEVER.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.
Contagious infection with human B19 Parvovirus most commonly seen in school age children and characterized by fever, headache, and rashes of the face, trunk, and extremities. It is often confused with rubella.
Strains of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 3 isolated from diverse primate species.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
An idiopathic disorder characterized by the loss of filiform papillae leaving reddened areas of circinate macules bound by a white band. The lesions heal, then others erupt.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.