EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Infection of animals, including fish and man, with a developmental stage of Diphyllobothrium. This stage has recently been referred to as a plerocercoid but the name sparganum has persisted. Therefore, infection of fish or other animals with the plerocercoid larvae is sparganosis. Fish-eating mammals, including man, are the final hosts.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Infections with bacteria of the genus LEPTOSPIRA.
A genus of aerobic, helical spirochetes, some species of which are pathogenic, others free-living or saprophytic.
A serovar of the bacterial species LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS, whose natural host is DOGS where disease is characterized by GASTROENTERITIS, and INTERSTITIAL NEPHRITIS.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.
The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that produce or contain at least one member of either heat-labile or heat-stable ENTEROTOXINS. The organisms colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestine and elaborate their enterotoxins causing DIARRHEA. They are mainly associated with tropical and developing countries and affect susceptible travelers to those places.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Educational institutions.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
An unassigned genus of RNA viruses with a single officially described species, HEPATITIS E VIRUS. A distantly related virus, Avian hepatitis E virus, has been listed as a tentative species. Strains have also been identified in swine. The family name hepeviridae has been proposed.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.