Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sensation Disorders: Disorders of the special senses (i.e., VISION; HEARING; TASTE; and SMELL) or somatosensory system (i.e., afferent components of the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM).Thermosensing: The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.Hypesthesia: Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.Somatosensory Disorders: Disorders of sensory information received from superficial and deep regions of the body. The somatosensory system conveys neural impulses which pertain to proprioception, tactile sensation, thermal sensation, pressure sensation, and pain. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and BRAIN DISEASES may be associated with impaired or abnormal somatic sensation.Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Mucuna: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is the source of mucuna gum.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Pruritus: An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Paresthesia: Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.Skin Temperature: The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.Phantom Limb: Perception of painful and nonpainful phantom sensations that occur following the complete or partial loss of a limb. The majority of individuals with an amputated extremity will experience the impression that the limb is still present, and in many cases, painful. (From Neurol Clin 1998 Nov;16(4):919-36; Brain 1998 Sep;121(Pt 9):1603-30)Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Boredom: A psychological state resulting from any activity that lacks motivation, or from enforced continuance in an uninteresting situation.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Touch Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of tactile stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain, such as realizing the characteristics or name of an object being touched.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Ophthalmic Nerve: A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Thermoreceptors: Cellular receptors which mediate the sense of temperature. Thermoreceptors in vertebrates are mostly located under the skin. In mammals there are separate types of thermoreceptors for cold and for warmth and NOCICEPTORS which detect cold or heat extreme enough to cause pain.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Kinesthesis: Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.Burning Mouth Syndrome: A group of painful oral symptoms associated with a burning or similar sensation. There is usually a significant organic component with a degree of functional overlay; it is not limited to the psychophysiologic group of disorders.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Personality Tests: Standardized objective tests designed to facilitate the evaluation of personality.Menthol: An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Taste Disorders: Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Anal Canal: The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Sialorrhea: Increased salivary flow.Gastric Dilatation: Abnormal distention of the STOMACH due to accumulation of gastric contents that may reach 10 to 15 liters. Gastric dilatation may be the result of GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION; ILEUS; GASTROPARESIS; or denervation.Spinothalamic Tracts: A bundle of NERVE FIBERS connecting each posterior horn of the spinal cord to the opposite side of the THALAMUS, carrying information about pain, temperature, and touch. It is one of two major routes by which afferent spinal NERVE FIBERS carrying sensations of somaesthesis are transmitted to the THALAMUS.Acupuncture Points: Designated locations along nerves or organ meridians for inserting acupuncture needles.Transient Receptor Potential Channels: A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.TRPV Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.Visceral Afferents: The sensory fibers innervating the viscera.Taste Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.Psychophysiology: The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.Smiling: A facial expression which may denote feelings of pleasure, affection, amusement, etc.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Amputation Stumps: The part of a limb or tail following amputation that is proximal to the amputated section.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Drive: A state of internal activity of an organism that is a necessary condition before a given stimulus will elicit a class of responses; e.g., a certain level of hunger (drive) must be present before food will elicit an eating response.Chin: The anatomical frontal portion of the mandible, also known as the mentum, that contains the line of fusion of the two separate halves of the mandible (symphysis menti). This line of fusion divides inferiorly to enclose a triangular area called the mental protuberance. On each side, inferior to the second premolar tooth, is the mental foramen for the passage of blood vessels and a nerve.Lobeline: An alkaloid that has actions similar to NICOTINE on nicotinic cholinergic receptors but is less potent. It has been proposed for a variety of therapeutic uses including in respiratory disorders, peripheral vascular disorders, insomnia, and smoking cessation.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Taste Threshold: The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.Qi: The vital life force in the body, supposedly able to be regulated by acupuncture. It corresponds roughly to the Greek pneuma, the Latin spiritus, and the ancient Indian prana. The concept of life-breath or vital energy was formulated as an indication of the awareness of man, originally directed externally toward nature or society but later turned inward to the self or life within. (From Comparison between Concepts of Life-Breath in East and West, 15th International Symposium on the Comparative History of Medicine - East and West, August 26-September 3, 1990, Shizuoka, Japan, pp. ix-x)Pain Insensitivity, Congenital: A syndrome characterized by indifference to PAIN despite the ability to distinguish noxious from non-noxious stimuli. Absent corneal reflexes and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY may be associated. Familial forms with autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant patterns of inheritance have been described. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Astringents: Agents, usually topical, that cause the contraction of tissues for the control of bleeding or secretions.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Diabetic Neuropathies: Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)Trigeminal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Colonic Diseases, Functional: Chronic or recurrent colonic disorders without an identifiable structural or biochemical explanation. The widely recognized IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME falls into this category.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.Motion Sickness: Disorder caused by motion, as sea sickness, train sickness, car sickness, air sickness, or SPACE MOTION SICKNESS. It may include nausea, vomiting and dizziness.Mental Fatigue: A condition of low alertness or cognitive impairment, usually associated with prolonged mental activities or stress.Lateral Thalamic Nuclei: A narrow strip of cell groups on the dorsomedial surface of the thalamus. It includes the lateral dorsal nucleus, lateral posterior nucleus, and the PULVINAR.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ventral Thalamic Nuclei: A large group of nuclei lying between the internal medullary lamina and the INTERNAL CAPSULE. It includes the ventral anterior, ventral lateral, and ventral posterior nuclei.Antipruritics: Agents, usually topical, that relieve itching (pruritus).Vestibule, Labyrinth: An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.Panic: A state of extreme acute, intense anxiety and unreasoning fear accompanied by disorganization of personality function.Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Taste Buds: Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.Fecal Incontinence: Failure of voluntary control of the anal sphincters, with involuntary passage of feces and flatus.Physiological Phenomena: The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.Clothing: Fabric or other material used to cover the body.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Lip DiseasesSensory System Agents: Drugs that act on neuronal sensory receptors resulting in an increase, decrease, or modification of afferent nerve activity. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p367)Flavoring Agents: Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.Thirst: A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.Pain, Referred: A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.Dysarthria: Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)Elevators and Escalators: Mechanical ascending and descending devices which convey objects and/or people.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Gastrointestinal Transit: Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Constipation: Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Pleasure: Sensation of enjoyment or gratification.Relaxation: Activity which reduces the feelings of tension and the effects of STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.TRPM Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Tinnitus: A nonspecific symptom of hearing disorder characterized by the sensation of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises in the ear. Objective tinnitus refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other conditions.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Motion Pictures as Topic: The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.Quinine: An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.Neural Prostheses: Medical devices which substitute for a nervous system function by electrically stimulating the nerves directly and monitoring the response to the electrical stimulation.Implantable Neurostimulators: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION of nerve tissue is delivered.Defecation: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Acupuncture Therapy: Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Viscera: Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Spina Bifida Cystica: A form of spinal dysraphism associated with a protruding cyst made up of either meninges (i.e., a MENINGOCELE) or meninges in combination with spinal cord tissue (i.e., a MENINGOMYELOCELE). These lesions are frequently associated with spinal cord dysfunction, HYDROCEPHALUS, and SYRINGOMYELIA. (From Davis et al., Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp224-5)Diagnostic Techniques, Neurological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the nervous system, central and peripheral, or demonstration of neurologic function or dysfunction.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.Galvanic Skin Response: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Nociceptive Pain: Dull or sharp aching pain caused by stimulated NOCICEPTORS due to tissue injury, inflammation or diseases. It can be divided into somatic or tissue pain and VISCERAL PAIN.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Visceral Pain: Pain originating from internal organs (VISCERA) associated with autonomic phenomena (PALLOR; SWEATING; NAUSEA; and VOMITING). It often becomes a REFERRED PAIN.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Urticaceae: The nettles plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. Many have stinging hairs on stems and leaves. Flowers are small and greenish in leaf axils. The fruit is dry and one-seeded.Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Ethyl Chloride: A gas that condenses under slight pressure. Because of its low boiling point ethyl chloride sprayed on skin produces an intense cold by evaporation. Cold blocks nerve conduction. Ethyl chloride has been used in surgery but is primarily used to relieve local pain in sports medicine.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Coriolis Force: The apparent deflection (Coriolis acceleration) of a body in motion with respect to the earth, as seen by an observer on the earth, attributed to a fictitious force (Coriolis force) but actually caused by the rotation of the earth. In a medical context it refers to the physiological effects (nausea, vertigo, dizziness, etc.) felt by a person moving radially in a rotating system, as a rotating space station. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Hand Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the hand.Moxibustion: The burning of a small, thimble sized, smoldering plug of dried leaves on the SKIN at an ACUPUNCTURE point. Usually the plugs contain leaves of MUGWORT or moxa.Lip: Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.Butylscopolammonium Bromide: Antimuscarinic quaternary ammonium derivative of scopolamine used to treat cramps in gastrointestinal, urinary, uterine, and biliary tracts, and to facilitate radiologic visualization of the gastrointestinal tract.Forearm Injuries: Injuries to the part of the upper limb of the body between the wrist and elbow.Nociception: Sensing of noxious mechanical, thermal or chemical stimuli by NOCICEPTORS. It is the sensory component of visceral and tissue pain (NOCICEPTIVE PAIN).Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Alcoholics: Persons who have a history of physical or psychological dependence on ETHANOL.Vestibular Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH which contains part of the balancing apparatus. Patients with vestibular diseases show instability and are at risk of frequent falls.Finger Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.Tongue DiseasesPersonality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Ciguatera Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of SEAFOOD containing microgram levels of CIGUATOXINS. The poisoning is characterized by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Esophageal Diseases: Pathological processes in the ESOPHAGUS.Receptors, Purinergic P2X3: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor involved in sensory signaling of TASTE PERCEPTION, chemoreception, visceral distension, and NEUROPATHIC PAIN. The receptor comprises three P2X3 subunits. The P2X3 subunits are also associated with P2X2 RECEPTOR subunits in a heterotrimeric receptor variant.Amputation, Traumatic: Loss of a limb or other bodily appendage by accidental injury.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Hypnosis: A state of increased receptivity to suggestion and direction, initially induced by the influence of another person.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Pharyngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PHARYNX.