Seed Dispersal: The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Proteaceae: A plant family of the order Proteales, subclass Rosidae class Magnoliopsida. Cluster roots, bottlebrush-like clusters of rootlets which form in response to poor soil, are common in this family.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Cryptocarya: A plant genus of the family LAURACEAE. Members contain cryptofolione, caryachine, grandisin and other compounds. Some PEUMUS species have been reclassified as CRYPTOCARYA.Tabebuia: A plant genus of the family BIGNONIACEAE that is a source of lapachol.Characiformes: An order of fresh water fish with 18 families and over 1600 species. The order includes CHARACINS, hatchetfish, piranhas, and TETRAS.Atelinae: A subfamily in the family ATELIDAE, comprising three genera: woolly monkeys (Lagothrix), spider monkeys (Ateles), and woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles).Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Campanulaceae: A plant family of the order Campanulales, subclass Asteridae, class MagnoliopsidaCardamine: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that is low-growing in damp meadows of the Northern Hemisphere and has pinnately divided leaves and small white to rose flowers.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Rumex: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that contains patientosides and other naphthalene glycosides.Ecological and Environmental Processes: Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.Fraxinus: A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain secoiridoid glucosides.Genetic Structures: The biological objects that contain genetic information and that are involved in transmitting genetically encoded traits from one organism to another.Zamiaceae: A plant family of the order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA.BelizeCistaceae: A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The common name of rock rose is used with several plants of this family.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Perissodactyla: An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Plant Weeds: A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.NevadaWyomingImpatiens: A plant genus of subsucculent annual or perennial plants in the family BALSAMINACEAE, order Geraniales.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Forensic Ballistics: The science of studying projectiles in motion, ballistics, being applied to law. Ballistics on firearm projectiles, such as bullets, include the study of what happens inside the weapon, during the flight of the projectile, and when the projectile strikes the target, such as body tissue.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.PanamaSongbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Plant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Medicago: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It is distinct from Sweet Clover (MELILOTUS), from Bush Clover (LESPEDEZA), and from Red Clover (TRIFOLIUM).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Grape Seed Extract: Exudate from seeds of the grape plant Vitis vinifera, composed of oils and secondary plant metabolites (BIOFLAVONOIDS and polyphenols) credited with important medicinal properties.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Seed Storage Proteins: One or more types of plant seed proteins providing the large amounts of AMINO ACIDS utilized in GERMINATION and SEEDLING growth. As seeds are the major food source from AGRICULTURAL CROPS, seed storage proteins are a major source of DIETARY PROTEINS.Brazil