A hardy grain crop, rye, grown in northern climates. It is the most frequent host to ergot (CLAVICEPS), the toxic fungus. Its hybrid with TRITICUM is TRITICALE, another grain.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Clavicipitaceae, order Hypocreales, parasitic on various grasses (POACEAE). The sclerotia contain several toxic alkaloids. Claviceps purpurea on rye causes ergotism.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The shell-like structure projects like a little wing (pinna) from the side of the head. Ear auricles collect sound from the environment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
The three-part structure of ribbon-like proteinaceous material that serves to align and join the paired homologous CHROMOSOMES. It is formed during the ZYGOTENE STAGE of the first meiotic division. It is a prerequisite for CROSSING OVER.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,3- or 1,4-linkages in beta-D-glucans. This enzyme specifically acts on sites where reducing glucose residues are substituted at the 3 position.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
Extracts prepared from pancreatic tissue that may contain the pancreatic enzymes or other specific uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific activities. PANCREATIN is a specific extract containing digestive enzymes and used to treat pancreatic insufficiency.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
A malabsorption condition resulting from greater than 10% reduction in the secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes (LIPASE; PROTEASES; and AMYLASE) by the EXOCRINE PANCREAS into the DUODENUM. This condition is often associated with CYSTIC FIBROSIS and with chronic PANCREATITIS.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A plant genus of the family DRYOPTERIDACEAE.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Water that emerges to the surface of the earth from underground.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE.
A genus of ciliate protozoa having a unique cursorial type of locomotion.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The larger of two types of nuclei in ciliate protozoans. It is the transcriptionally active nucleus of the vegetative cells as distinguished from the smaller transcriptionally inert GERMLINE MICRONUCLEUS.
A self-governing state of the Windward Islands in the West Indies, comprising Saint Vincent and the northern islets of the Grenadines. Its capital is Kingstown. It is one of the original homes of the Carib Indians supposed to have been sighted by Columbus in 1498. It was in English hands from 1627 till held by the French 1779-83. Saint Vincent subsequently became a British possession and, with other nearby British territories, was administered by the Governor of the Windward Islands till 1959. It attained a measure of independence in 1969 but achieved full independence as Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in 1979. Saint Vincent was the 4th century Spanish martyr on whose feast day Columbus discovered the island. Grenadines is derived from the Spanish kingdom of Granada. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1054 & The Europa World Year Book 1993, p2441)
The smaller, reproductive, transcriptionally inert nucleus in the cells of ciliate protozoans, as distinguished from the larger, vegetative, transcriptionally active MACRONUCLEUS. Micronuclei participate in MEIOSIS and autogamy during GENETIC CONJUGATION.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
Any agent that adds not only sweet taste but some energy value to food. They include natural sugars such as SUCROSE; FRUCTOSE; and GALACTOSE; and certain SUGAR ALCOHOLS.
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
Agents that produce a soft formed stool, and relax and loosen the bowels, typically used over a protracted period, to relieve CONSTIPATION.
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)
Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.