Facilities which provide care for infants.
Schools for children usually under five years of age.
Educational institutions.
Hospital facilities which provide care for newborn infants.
A nursing specialty concerned with health and nursing care given to primary and secondary school students by a registered nurse.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.
Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.
Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of pharmacy.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of nursing.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Facilities which provide care for pre-school and school-age children.
Treatment of food with RADIATION.
Care of the newborn infant in a crib near the mother's bed, instead of in a nursery, during the hospital stay.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.
Mechanical food dispensing machines.
Use for articles concerning dental education in general.
The common orally transmitted traditions, myths, festivals, songs, superstitions, and stories of all peoples.
Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.
Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A subspecialty of Pediatrics concerned with the newborn infant.
Individuals who leave school, secondary or college, prior to completion of specified curriculum requirements.
Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
An antibacterial agent that has been used in veterinary practice for treating swine dysentery and enteritis and for promoting growth. However, its use has been prohibited in the UK following reports of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p125)
The educational process of instructing.
Facilities provided for human excretion, often with accompanying handwashing facilities.
A genus (and common name) in the AGAVACEAE family. It is known for SAPONINS in the root that are used in SOAPS.
The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.
Physical surroundings or conditions of a hospital or other health facility and influence of these factors on patients and staff.
Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Preventive dental services provided for students in primary and secondary schools.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.
A plant family of the order Rhizophorales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida, that includes mangrove trees.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.
Infection with nematodes of the genus ENTEROBIUS; E. vermicularis, the pinworm of man, causes a crawling sensation and pruritus. This condition results in scratching the area, occasionally causing scarification.
Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.
The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)
A genus of intestinal nematode worms which includes the pinworm or threadworm Enterobius vermicularis.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Acute conjunctival inflammation in the newborn, usually caused by maternal gonococcal infection. The causative agent is NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE. The baby's eyes are contaminated during passage through the birth canal.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Selection of a type of occupation or profession.
Chronic absence from work or other duty.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.
A plant genus of the family Acanthaceae. Members contain NAPHTHOQUINONES. Black mangroves (common name for the genus) are distinguished from other mangroves by their spike-like aerial roots called pneumatophores that project from the soil or water surrounding the plants.
Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to medical school.
The last bone in the VERTEBRAL COLUMN in tailless primates considered to be a vestigial tail-bone consisting of three to five fused VERTEBRAE.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The meal taken at midday.
A genus of destructive parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae, order Peronosporales, affecting numerous fruit, vegetable, and other crops. Differentiation of zoospores usually takes place in the sporangium and no vesicle is formed. It was previously considered a fungus.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.
Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.
Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.
Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.
The consumption of edible substances.
Encysted cercaria which house the intermediate stages of trematode parasites in tissues of an intermediate host.
Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Care of infants in the home or institution.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Aggressive behavior intended to cause harm or distress. The behavior may be physical or verbal. There is typically an imbalance of power, strength, or status between the target and the aggressor.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.
The nursing specialty that deals with the care of newborn infants during the first four weeks after birth.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.
A common spice from fruit of PIPER NIGRUM. Black pepper is picked unripe and heaped for a few days to ferment. White Pepper is the ripe fruit dehulled by maceration in water. Piperine is a key component used medicinally to increase gastrointestinal assimilation of other supplements and drugs.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.
Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and water to 1L-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate and orthophosphate. EC
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Common name for the order Pleuronectiformes. A very distinctive group in that during development they become asymmetrical, i.e., one eye migrates to lie adjacent to the other. They swim on the eyeless side. FLOUNDER, sole, and turbot, along with several others, are included in this order.
The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRITISH VIRGINI ISLANDS, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of veterinary medicine.
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
A chronic, clinically mild, infectious pneumonia of PIGS caused by MYCOPLASMA HYOPNEUMONIAE. Ninety percent of swine herds worldwide are infected with this economically costly disease that primarily affects animals aged two to six months old. The disease can be associated with porcine respiratory disease complex. PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA is often found as a secondary infection.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Alberta and Manitoba. Its capital is Regina. It is entirely a plains region with prairie in the south and wooded country with many lakes and swamps in the north. The name was taken from the Saskatchewan River from the Cree name Kisiskatchewani Sipi, meaning rapid-flowing river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1083 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p486)
Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of library science or information.
Schools which offer training in the area of health.
The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)
Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.
Primarily non-verbal tests designed to predict an individual's future learning ability or performance.
Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.
Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.
A genus of large SEA CUCUMBERS in the family Holothuriidae possessing thick body walls, a warty body surface, and microscopic ossicles.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
A bluish-gray to gray-brown benign, melanocytic nevus found usually in the LUMBOSACRAL REGION of dark-skinned people, especially those of East Asian ancestry. It is usually congenital or appears shortly after birth, and disappears in childhood.
A compound given in the treatment of conditions associated with zinc deficiency such as acrodermatitis enteropathica. Externally, zinc sulfate is used as an astringent in lotions and eye drops. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Test designed to identify students suitable for admission into a graduate or undergraduate curriculum.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from health professional or health care worker to patients. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.
Education for specific trades or occupations.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that causes MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIA OF SWINE. The organism damages the CILIA in the airways of the pig, and thus compromises one of the most effective mechanical barriers against invading pathogens. The resulting weakening of the IMMUNE SYSTEM can encourage secondary infections, leading to porcine respiratory disease complex.
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
Macrolide antibiotic obtained from cultures of Streptomyces fradiae. The drug is effective against many microorganisms in animals but not in humans.
The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.
A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A plant species in the PIPERACEAE plant family. It is a common spice on foods and is used medicinally to increase gastrointestinal assimilation of other supplements and drugs. Piperine is a key component. Black pepper is picked unripe and heaped for a few days to ferment. White Pepper is the ripe fruit dehulled by maceration in water.
Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to dental school.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.
The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.
Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.
A sulfanilamide anti-infective agent. It has a spectrum of antimicrobial action similar to other sulfonamides.
The interactions between parent and child.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).
The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).
A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Most frequently refers to the integration of a physically or mentally disabled child into the regular class of normal peers and provision of the appropriately determined educational program.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.