Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.
A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.
Liver Diseases, Parasitic
Parasite Egg Count
Determination of parasite eggs in feces.
Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.
An anthelmintic with schistosomicidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, but not against other Schistosoma spp. Oxamniquine causes worms to shift from the mesenteric veins to the liver where the male worms are retained; the female worms return to the mesentery, but can no longer release eggs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p121)
Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.
Agents destructive to snails and other mollusks.
SCHISTOSOMIASIS of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges caused by infections with trematodes of the genus SCHISTOSOMA (primarily SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM; SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI; and SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM in humans). S. japonicum infections of the nervous system may cause an acute meningoencephalitis or a chronic encephalopathy. S. mansoni and S. haematobium nervous system infections are associated with acute transverse myelitis involving the lower portions of the spinal cord. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp61-2)
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
Enlargement of the liver.
Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).
A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.
The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.
Lung Diseases, Parasitic
Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).
Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.
Skin Diseases, Parasitic
Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.
A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.
Geographic Information Systems
A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.
Communicable Disease Control
Presence of blood in the urine.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown.
A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic
Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.
Multidisciplinary field focusing on prevention of infectious diseases and patient safety during international TRAVEL. Key element of patient's pre-travel visit to the physician is a health risk assessment.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.
A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.
Sensitivity and Specificity
A species of parasitic nematode that is the largest found in the human intestine. Its distribution is worldwide, but it is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation. Human infection with A. lumbricoides is acquired by swallowing fully embryonated eggs from contaminated soil.
Esophageal and Gastric Varices
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.
National Health Programs
Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa on and north of the Equator and, with Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Kenya, is often referred to as the Horn of Africa. It comprises Italy's former Trust Territory of Somalia and the former British Protectorate of Somaliland. The capital is Mogadishu.
Genital Diseases, Female
Aspartic Acid Proteases
The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.