Schistosoma haematobium: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae which occurs at different stages in development in veins of the pulmonary and hepatic system and finally the bladder lumen. This parasite causes urinary schistosomiasis.Schistosomiasis haematobia: A human disease caused by the infection of parasitic worms SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM. It is endemic in AFRICA and parts of the MIDDLE EAST. Tissue damages most often occur in the URINARY TRACT, specifically the URINARY BLADDER.Schistosoma mansoni: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.Bulinus: A genus of small freshwater snails of the order Pulmonata, found throughout Africa and the Middle East, where it is a vector of SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Schistosoma: A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.Praziquantel: An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Schistosomicides: Agents that act systemically to kill adult schistosomes.Schistosomiasis mansoni: Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean and affects mainly the bowel, spleen, and liver.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Hematuria: Presence of blood in the urine.DNA, Helminth: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.Biomphalaria: A genus of planorbid freshwater snails, species of which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Antiplatyhelmintic Agents: Agents used to treat cestode, trematode, or other flatworm infestations in man or animals.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Trichlorfon: An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Helminthiasis: Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Schistosomiasis japonica: Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum. It is endemic in the Far East and affects the bowel, liver, and spleen.Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections: Infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges caused by parasites.Urinary Bladder Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY BLADDER.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Urinary Tract: The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Helminths: Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.Gabon: A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.Senegal: A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Hepatomegaly: Enlargement of the liver.Hookworm Infections: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Molluscacides: Agents destructive to snails and other mollusks.Ethylmorphine: A narcotic analgesic and antitussive. It is metabolized in the liver by ETHYLMORPHINE-N-DEMETHYLASE and used as an indicator of liver function.Oxamniquine: An anthelmintic with schistosomicidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, but not against other Schistosoma spp. Oxamniquine causes worms to shift from the mesenteric veins to the liver where the male worms are retained; the female worms return to the mesentery, but can no longer release eggs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p121)Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Sulfalene: Long-acting plasma-bound sulfonamide used for respiratory and urinary tract infections and also for malaria.AfricaRural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Genital Diseases, Female: Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.