A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each consists of a sapogenin as the aglycone moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.
An araliaceous genus of plants that contains a number of pharmacologically active agents used as stimulants, sedatives, and tonics, especially in traditional medicine. Sometimes confused with Siberian ginseng (ELEUTHEROCOCCUS).
The aglucon moiety of a saponin molecule. It may be triterpenoid or steroid, usually spirostan, in nature.
Dammarane type triterpene saponins based mainly on the aglycones, protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE whose members produce SAPONINS.
A pentacyclic triterpene that occurs widely in many PLANTS as the free acid or the aglycone for many SAPONINS. It is biosynthesized from lupane. It can rearrange to the isomer, ursolic acid, or be oxidized to taraxasterol and amyrin.
A plant species of the genus PANAX. It contains damarane-type tetracyclic TRITERPENES. The common names of Sanchi or Tienchi are also used for Panax pseudoginseng which is distinguished in containing oleanane-type pentacyclic triterpenoids.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.
A plant genus of the family SAPINDACEAE that contain SAPONINS.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain cernuosides and other oleanane and hederagenin saponins.
A plant genus of the family CAMPANULACEAE that contains platycodin and other triterpenoid SAPONINS. It is a constituent of kikyo-to (MEDICINE, KAMPO).
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
A spirostan found in DIOSCOREA and other plants. The 25S isomer is called yamogenin. Solasodine is a natural derivative formed by replacing the spiro-ring with a nitrogen, which can rearrange to SOLANINE.
A plant genus in the family THEACEAE, order THEALES best known for CAMELLIA SINENSIS which is the source of Oriental TEA.
Substances that are toxic to blood in general, including the clotting mechanism; hematotoxins may refer to the hematopoietic system.
An alkaloid that occurs in the extract of leaves of wild tomato plants. It has been found to inhibit the growth of various fungi and bacteria. It is used as a precipitating agent for steroids. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)
Cholestane derivatives containing a fused lactone ring at the 16,17-position and a spiroglycosidic linkage at C-22. Members include sarsaponin, DIOSGENIN and yamogenin.
A plant genus in the family ARALIACEAE, order Apiales, subclass Rosidae. It includes Aralia californica S. Watson, Aralia nudicaulis L., and Aralia racemosa L.
A plant genus of the family ZYGOPHYLLACEAE. Members contain steroidal saponins. Ingestion by grazing animals causes PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS called geeldikkop (yellow thick head) in South Africa.
Natural detergents made up of a heterogeneous mixture of molecules having a triterpenoid core structure. They vary in aglycone (sapogenin) and sugar moieties, including glucose.
A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
The soapberry plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members contain SAPONINS.
A plant species of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. It is a source of SAPONINS. The common name "Soapwort" is also used with VACCARIA. The common name of "Bouncing Bet" is occasionally used with VIOLA.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain benzoquinones, steroidal saponin, and ribosome-inactivating proteins.
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.
A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. The species are diverse in appearance and habitat; most have swollen leaf and stem joints.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains julibroside (triterpenoid saponins).
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.
A plant genus best known for edible underground tubers. Yam may also refer to a moist variety of sweet potato, IPOMOEA BATATAS.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. The common name of "dragon's blood" is also used for CROTON and Daemonorops (ARECACEAE).
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE, subfamily Papilionaceae, order Fabales, subclass Rosidae. Many of the species are associated with poisoning of grazing animals. Some of the species are used medicinally.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A plant family of the order Dipsacales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes called the teasel family.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A plant genus of the family APIACEAE that is the source of bupleurum root and of bupleurotoxin and is an ingredient of sho-saiko-to.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
A plant genus of the family PHYTOLACCACEAE, order Caryophyllales.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).