Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
An order of insects, comprising a single family (Mantidae), restricted almost entirely to the tropics. Only one species, the praying mantis (Mantis religiosa), is found in temperate habitats.
Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
An activity distinguished primarily by an element of risk in trying to obtain a desired goal, e.g., playing a game of chance for money.
Sexual activities of humans.
The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological changes during ADOLESCENCE, approximately between the age of 13 and 18.
Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.
Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Sexual attraction or relationship between males.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
A nicotinic antagonist that is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Mecamylamine has been used as a ganglionic blocker in treating hypertension, but, like most ganglionic blockers, is more often used now as a research tool.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.