Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.Ribulosephosphates: Ribulose substituted by one or more phosphoric acid moieties.Rhodospirillum rubrum: Vibrio- to spiral-shaped phototrophic bacteria found in stagnant water and mud exposed to light.PentosephosphatesCarboxy-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Thiobacillus: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of one or more reduced sulfur compounds. Many former species have been reclassified to other classes of PROTEOBACTERIA.Alcaligenes: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Pyruvate Carboxylase: A biotin-dependent enzyme belonging to the ligase family that catalyzes the addition of CARBON DIOXIDE to pyruvate. It is occurs in both plants and animals. Deficiency of this enzyme causes severe psychomotor retardation and ACIDOSIS, LACTIC in infants. EC Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Rhodobacter sphaeroides: Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase: An enzyme with high affinity for carbon dioxide. It catalyzes irreversibly the formation of oxaloacetate from phosphoenolpyruvate and carbon dioxide. This fixation of carbon dioxide in several bacteria and some plants is the first step in the biosynthesis of glucose. EC Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sugar PhosphatesMolecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Spinacia oleracea: A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Fructosediphosphates: Diphosphoric acid esters of fructose. The fructose-1,6- diphosphate isomer is most prevalent. It is an important intermediate in the glycolysis process.Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate: A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Carbon-Carbon Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are the carboxylating enzymes and are mostly biotinyl-proteins. EC 6.4.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.HexosediphosphatesChromatium: A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Halothiobacillus: A genus of gram-negative, chemolithoautotrophic bacteria in the family Halothiobacillaceae. Several of its species were reclassified to this genus from THIOBACILLUS.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Glyceric AcidsPiscirickettsiaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria, in the order Thiotrichales.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Methylmalonyl-CoA Decarboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that catalyzes the decarboxylation of (S)-2-Methyl-3-oxopropanoyl-CoA to propanoyl-CoA. In microorganisms the reaction can be coupled to the vectorial transport of SODIUM ions across the cytoplasmic membrane.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Euglena gracilis: A species of fresh-water, flagellated EUKARYOTES in the phylum EUGLENIDA.Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Biotin: A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.Chlamydomonas: A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.Rhamnus: A plant genus of the family RHAMNACEAE. Several species have been reclassified to the FRANGULA genus. It is often called buckthorn but should not be confused with other plants called that.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the cleavage of fructose 1,6-biphosphate to form dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The enzyme also acts on (3S,4R)-ketose 1-phosphates. The yeast and bacterial enzymes are zinc proteins. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) E.C. Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates: Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.Flaveria: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that is used for experiments in molecular genetic studies in plant physiology and development.FructosephosphatesEukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Darkness: The absence of light.Fructose-Bisphosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and water to D-fructose 6-phosphate and orthophosphate. EC mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Phosphofructokinase-1: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.Chemoautotrophic Growth: Growth of organisms using AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES for obtaining nutrients and chemotrophic processes for obtaining a primary energy supply. Chemotrophic processes are involved in deriving a primary energy supply from exogenous chemical sources. Chemotrophic autotrophs (chemoautotrophs) generally use inorganic chemicals as energy sources and as such are called chemolithoautotrophs. Most chemoautotrophs live in hostile environments, such as deep sea vents. They are mostly BACTERIA and ARCHAEA, and are the primary producers for those ecosystems.