Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).
A genus of RED ALGAE in the family Bangiaceae. It is the most widely consumed SEAWEED in the world and especially in Asia.
A genus of RED ALGAE in the family Gracilariaceae. It is a highly commercial SEAWEED and a source of AGAR.
Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.
Components of ribosomal RNA that undergo auto-catalyzed molecular rearrangements of their RNA sequence.
A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.
A plant family of the order Typhales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) that contains a single genus, Typha, that grows worldwide.
A large family of fruit flies in the order DIPTERA, comprising over 4,500 species in about 100 genera. They have patterned wings and brightly colored bodies and are found predominantly in the tropical latitudes.
An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.
A type of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where polyribosomes are present on the cytoplasmic surfaces of the ER membranes. This form of ER is prominent in cells specialized for protein secretion and its principal function is to segregate proteins destined for export or intracellular utilization.
Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The first enzyme of the proline degradative pathway. It catalyzes the oxidation of proline to pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid in the presence of oxygen and water. The action is not reversible. The specific activity of proline oxidase increases with age. EC 1.5.3.-.
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.
A membrane-type metalloproteinase that is associated with the CELL MEMBRANE via a GLYCOSYL-PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL linkage. It is synthesized as an inactive zymogen that is activated by the action of PROPROTEIN CONVERTASES such as FURIN.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.