Rhizome: Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.Curcuma: A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE that contains CURCUMIN and curcuminoids.Zingiberaceae: A plant family of the order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida. It includes plants which have both flavoring and medicinal properties such as GINGER; turmeric (CURCUMA), and cardamom (ELETTARIA).Alpinia: A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE. Members contain galangin, yakuchinone-A, and diarylheptanoids.Ginger: Deciduous plant rich in volatile oil (OILS, VOLATILE). It is used as a flavoring agent and has many other uses both internally and topically.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Podophyllum: A genus of poisonous American herbs, family BERBERIDACEAE. The roots yield PODOPHYLLOTOXIN and other pharmacologically important agents. The plant was formerly used as a cholagogue and cathartic. It is different from the European mandrake, MANDRAGORA.Atractylodes: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain hinesol and atractylon. Atractylodes rhizome is Byaku-jutsu. A. lancea rhizome is So-jutsu.Typhaceae: A plant family of the order Typhales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) that contains a single genus, Typha, that grows worldwide.Dioscorea: A plant genus best known for edible underground tubers. Yam may also refer to a moist variety of sweet potato, IPOMOEA BATATAS.Smilax: A plant genus of the family SMILACACEAE. Members contain smiglasides (phenylpropanoid glycosides) and steroidal saponins. Commercially it is sometimes adulterated with HEMIDESMUS, which would affect experimental results.Trillium: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE that is a short plant with a distinct whorl of 3 broad leaves.Dryopteris: A plant genus of the family DRYOPTERIDACEAE. Members contain aspidin and filicic acid.Spirostans: Cholestane derivatives containing a fused lactone ring at the 16,17-position and a spiroglycosidic linkage at C-22. Members include sarsaponin, DIOSGENIN and yamogenin.Acorus: A plant genus of the family ACORACEAE, order Arales, subclass Arecidae most notable for Acorus calamus L. root which contains asarone and has been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE.Rheum: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE. Members contain chrysophanic acid, rhein, EMODIN, and other ANTHRAQUINONES. The roots were formerly used as PURGATIVES.Ranunculaceae: The buttercup plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually alternate and stalkless. The flowers usually have two to five free sepals and may be radially symmetrical or irregular.Polygonaceae: The only family of the buckwheat order (Polygonales) of dicotyledonous flowering plants. It has 40 genera of herbs, shrubs, and trees.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Dioscoreaceae: The yam plant family, of the order Liliales, has thick roots or tubers and net-veined, heart-shaped leaves that sometimes are lobed.Nelumbo: A plant genus of the family NELUMBONACEAE. The common name of lotus is also for LOTUS and NYMPHAEA.Bambusa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Young shoots are eaten in Asian foods while the stiff mature stems are used for construction of many things. The common name of bamboo is also used for other genera of Poaceae including Phyllostachys, SASA, and Dendrocalamus.Dryopteridaceae: The wood fern plant family of the order Polypodiales, class Filicopsida, division Pteridophyta.Polygonatum: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain benzoquinones, steroidal saponin, and ribosome-inactivating proteins.Liliaceae: A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.Picrorhiza: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. Members contain scrosides (CINNAMATES) and phenylethanoid glycoside. P. kurrooa is the source of picroliv (a purified iridoid glycoside fraction from the roots having hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties).Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Alisma: A plant genus of the family ALISMATACEAE. The flowers have 3 green sepals, 3 yellow and white petals, 6 stamens, and several pistils. Members contain TRITERPENES and SESQUITERPENES. Alisma is a component of tokishakuyakusan. Some species in this genus are called water plantain which is also a common name for other ALISMATACEAE plants.Saponins: A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each consists of a sapogenin as the aglycone moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.Ligusticum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE.Convallaria: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE that contains CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES.Logic: The science that investigates the principles governing correct or reliable inference and deals with the canons and criteria of validity in thought and demonstration. This system of reasoning is applicable to any branch of knowledge or study. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)ChicagoMedicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Famous PersonsPhotography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Literature, Modern