A large supergroup of mostly amoeboid EUKARYOTES whose three main subgroups are CERCOZOA; FORAMINIFERA; and HAPLOSPORIDA. Nearly all of the species possess MITOCHONDRIA and historically many were considered ANIMALS.
A group of EUKARYOTES that are parasites of plants. Life cycle stages include zoospores and plasmodia.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An order of amoeboid EUKARYOTES characterized by reticulating pseudopods and a complex life cycle with an alternation of generations. Most are less than 1mm in size and found in marine or brackish water.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A group of amoeboid and flagellate EUKARYOTES in the supergroup RHIZARIA. They feed by means of threadlike pseudopods.
A division of organisms that exist vegetatively as complex mobile plasmodia, reproduce by means of spores, and have complex life cycles. They are now classed as protozoa but formerly were considered fungi.
A genus of primitive plants in the family Cyanophoraceae, class GLAUCOPHYTA. They contain pigmented ORGANELLES (or PLASTIDS) called cyanelles, which have characteristics of both CYANOBACTERIA and CHLOROPLASTS.
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A supergroup (some say phylum) of ameboid EUKARYOTES, comprising ARCHAMOEBAE; LOBOSEA; and MYCETOZOA.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A class of EUKARYOTA (traditionally algae), characterized by biflagellated cells and found in both freshwater and marine environments. Pigmentation varies but only one CHLOROPLAST is present. Unique structures include a nucleomorph and ejectosomes.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
A species of HANTAVIRUS which emerged in the Four Corners area of the United States in 1993. It causes a serious, often fatal pulmonary illness (HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME) in humans. Transmission is by inhaling aerosolized rodent secretions that contain virus particles, carried especially by deer mice (PEROMYSCUS maniculatus) and pinyon mice (P. truei).
A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.
A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)
Disease involving the ULNAR NERVE from its origin in the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its termination in the hand. Clinical manifestations may include PARESIS or PARALYSIS of wrist flexion, finger flexion, thumb adduction, finger abduction, and finger adduction. Sensation over the medial palm, fifth finger, and ulnar aspect of the ring finger may also be impaired. Common sites of injury include the AXILLA, cubital tunnel at the ELBOW, and Guyon's canal at the wrist. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51 pp43-5)
The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.
The physiologic or functional barrier to GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX at the esophagogastric junction. Sphincteric muscles remain tonically contracted during the resting state and form the high-pressure zone separating the lumen of the ESOPHAGUS from that of the STOMACH. (Haubrich et al, Bockus Gastroenterology, 5th ed., pp399, 415)
A phylum of unicellular flagellates of ancient eukaryotic lineage with unclear taxonomy. They lack a CELL WALL but are covered by a proteinaceous flexible coat, the pellicle, that allows the cell to change shape. Historically some authorities considered them to be an order of protozoa and others classed them as ALGAE (some members have CHLOROPLASTS and some don't).
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A large group of flagellated EUKARYOTES found in both free-living and parasitic forms. The flagella are present in pairs and contain unique paraxonemal rods.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A group (or phylum) of unicellular EUKARYOTA (or algae) possessing CHLOROPLASTS and FLAGELLA.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.
A common name (but used formally) for a group of organisms that are mostly kinds of algae including BACILLARIOPHYTA; OOMYCETES; PHAEOPHYCEAE; and CHRYSOPHYCEAE. They all contain CHLOROPLASTS that are thought to have been derived from the endosymbiosis of ancient RED ALGAE.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE. Members contain glucobrassicin.
A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Alberta and Manitoba. Its capital is Regina. It is entirely a plains region with prairie in the south and wooded country with many lakes and swamps in the north. The name was taken from the Saskatchewan River from the Cree name Kisiskatchewani Sipi, meaning rapid-flowing river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1083 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p486)
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.
Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of carbamoyl phosphate and L-aspartate to yield orthophosphate and N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.3.2.
An enzyme that, in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes ring closure by removal of water from N-carbamoylaspartate to yield dihydro-orotic acid. EC 3.5.2.3.
The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC 6.3.4.16.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.