Erythrocyte isoantigens of the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, the most complex of all human blood groups. The major antigen Rh or D is the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis.
A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.
The process by which fetal Rh+ erythrocytes enter the circulation of an Rh- mother, causing her to produce IMMUNOGLOBULIN G antibodies, which can cross the placenta and destroy the erythrocytes of Rh+ fetuses. Rh isoimmunization can also be caused by BLOOD TRANSFUSION with mismatched blood.
An antigenic mismatch between donor and recipient blood. Antibodies present in the recipient's serum may be directed against antigens in the donor product. Such a mismatch may result in a transfusion reaction in which, for example, donor blood is hemolyzed. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984).
Transplacental passage of fetal blood into the circulation of the maternal organism. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
Immunizing agent containing IMMUNOGLOBULIN G anti-Rho(D) used for preventing Rh immunization in Rh-negative individuals exposed to Rh-positive red blood cells.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Auditory and visual instructional materials.
Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.
Accumulation of BILIRUBIN, a breakdown product of HEME PROTEINS, in the BLOOD during the first weeks of life. This may lead to NEONATAL JAUNDICE. The excess bilirubin may exist in the unconjugated (indirect) or the conjugated (direct) form. The condition may be self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) or pathological with toxic levels of bilirubin.
Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in two or more fetal compartments, such as SKIN; PLEURA; PERICARDIUM; PLACENTA; PERITONEUM; AMNIOTIC FLUID. General fetal EDEMA may be of non-immunologic origin, or of immunologic origin as in the case of ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS.
In utero transfusion of BLOOD into the FETUS for the treatment of FETAL DISEASES, such as fetal erythroblastosis (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL).
A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).
Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
All blood proteins except albumin ( = SERUM ALBUMIN, which is not a globulin) and FIBRINOGEN (which is not in the serum). The serum globulins are subdivided into ALPHA-GLOBULINS; BETA-GLOBULINS; and GAMMA-GLOBULINS on the basis of their electrophoretic mobilities. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Number of patients who need to be treated in order to prevent one additional bad outcome. It is the inverse of Absolute Risk Reduction.
The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
The transfer of blood platelets from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)