Reversal Learning: Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Probability Learning: Usually refers to the use of mathematical models in the prediction of learning to perform tasks based on the theory of probability applied to responses; it may also refer to the frequency of occurrence of the responses observed in the particular study.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Serial Learning: Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Set (Psychology): Readiness to think or respond in a predetermined way when confronted with a problem or stimulus situation.Feedback, Psychological: A mechanism of information stimulus and response that may control subsequent behavior, cognition, perception, or performance. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Habituation, Psychophysiologic: The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Callithrix: A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.Ibotenic Acid: A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.FluorobenzenesHippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Biofeedback, Psychology: The therapy technique of providing the status of one's own AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM function (e.g., skin temperature, heartbeats, brain waves) as visual or auditory feedback in order to self-control related conditions (e.g., hypertension, migraine headaches).Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.Fenclonine: A selective and irreversible inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin (5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE). Fenclonine acts pharmacologically to deplete endogenous levels of serotonin.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2C: A serotonin receptor subtype found primarily in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the CHOROID PLEXUS. This receptor subtype is believed to mediate the anorectic action of SEROTONIN, while selective antagonists of the 5-HT2C receptor appear to induce ANXIETY. Several isoforms of this receptor subtype exist, due to adenine deaminase editing of the receptor mRNA.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A: A serotonin receptor subtype found widely distributed in peripheral tissues where it mediates the contractile responses of variety of tissues that contain SMOOTH MUSCLE. Selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists include KETANSERIN. The 5-HT2A subtype is also located in BASAL GANGLIA and CEREBRAL CORTEX of the BRAIN where it mediates the effects of HALLUCINOGENS such as LSD.Citalopram: A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Aminopyridines: Pyridines substituted in any position with an amino group. May be hydrogenated, but must retain at least one double bond.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Dizocilpine Maleate: A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Biogenic Monoamines: Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Pirenzepine: An antimuscarinic agent that inhibits gastric secretion at lower doses than are required to affect gastrointestinal motility, salivary, central nervous system, cardiovascular, ocular, and urinary function. It promotes the healing of duodenal ulcers and due to its cytoprotective action is beneficial in the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence. It also potentiates the effect of other antiulcer agents such as CIMETIDINE and RANITIDINE. It is generally well tolerated by patients.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.