An abnormal passage communicating between any component of the respiratory tract or between any part of the respiratory system and surrounding organs.
Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.
An abnormal anatomical passage between the INTESTINE, and another segment of the intestine or other organs. External intestinal fistula is connected to the SKIN (enterocutaneous fistula). Internal intestinal fistula can be connected to a number of organs, such as STOMACH (gastrocolic fistula), the BILIARY TRACT (cholecystoduodenal fistula), or the URINARY BLADDER of the URINARY TRACT (colovesical fistula). Risk factors include inflammatory processes, cancer, radiation treatment, and surgical misadventures (MEDICAL ERRORS).
An abnormal passage or communication leading from an internal organ to the surface of the body.
An abnormal passage or communication between a bronchus and another part of the body.
An abnormal passage between two or more BLOOD VESSELS, between ARTERIES; VEINS; or between an artery and a vein.
An abnormal anatomical passage connecting the RECTUM to the outside, with an orifice at the site of drainage.
Abnormal passage communicating with the STOMACH.
An abnormal passage in any part of the URINARY TRACT between itself or with other organs.
Abnormal passage communicating with the ESOPHAGUS. The most common type is TRACHEOESOPHAGEAL FISTULA between the esophagus and the TRACHEA.
Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Abnormal passage communicating with the PANCREAS.
An abnormal anatomical passage between the RECTUM and the VAGINA.
An abnormal anatomical passage between the URINARY BLADDER and the VAGINA.
An abnormal anatomical passage that connects the VAGINA to other organs, such as the bladder (VESICOVAGINAL FISTULA) or the rectum (RECTOVAGINAL FISTULA).
Abnormal passage between the ESOPHAGUS and the TRACHEA, acquired or congenital, often associated with ESOPHAGEAL ATRESIA.
An abnormal passage in the URINARY BLADDER or between the bladder and any surrounding organ.
Abnormal communication between two ARTERIES that may result from injury or occur as a congenital abnormality.
Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A stricture of the ESOPHAGUS. Most are acquired but can be congenital.
Pathological processes in the ESOPHAGUS.
Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.
An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)
A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.
A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Congenital abnormality characterized by the lack of full development of the ESOPHAGUS that commonly occurs with TRACHEOESOPHAGEAL FISTULA. Symptoms include excessive SALIVATION; GAGGING; CYANOSIS; and DYSPNEA.
A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney.
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the urologic patient.