Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Ecological Parameter Monitoring: Ongoing collection, analysis, and interpretation of ecological data that is used to assess changes in the components, processes, and overall condition and functioning of an ECOSYSTEM.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Military Psychiatry: Branch of psychiatry concerned with problems related to the prevention, diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of mental or emotional disorders of Armed Forces personnel.Civilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Cyclonic Storms: Non-frontal low-pressure systems over tropical or sub-tropical waters with organized convection and definite pattern of surface wind circulation.World War II: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Psychology, Social: The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.Ego: The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Terrorism: The use or threatened use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of criminal laws for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom, in support of political or social objectives.Psychological Techniques: Methods used in the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral, personality, and mental disorders.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Zosteraceae: A plant family of the order Najadales, subclass ALISMATIDAE, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). This is a group of perennial aquatic herbs with basal leaves.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Colonialism: The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.American Samoa: A group of islands of SAMOA, in the southwest central Pacific. Its capital is Pago Pago. The islands were ruled by native chiefs until about 1869. An object of American interest beginning in 1839, Pago Pago and trading and extraterritorial rights were granted to the United States in 1878. The United States, Germany, and England administered the islands jointly 1889-99, but in 1899 they were granted to the United States by treaty. The Department of the Interior has administered American Samoa since 1951. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p44)Helplessness, Learned: Learned expectation that one's responses are independent of reward and, hence, do not predict or control the occurrence of rewards. Learned helplessness derives from a history, experimentally induced or naturally occurring, of having received punishment/aversive stimulation regardless of responses made. Such circumstances result in an impaired ability to learn. Used for human or animal populations. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Spirituality: Sensitivity or attachment to religious values, or to things of the spirit as opposed to material or worldly interests. (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed, and Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed)Dominance-Subordination: Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Child Reactive Disorders: Reactions to an event or set of events which are considered to be of pathological degree, that have not developed into a neurosis, psychosis, or personality disorder with fixed patterns.BelizeKelp: Large, robust forms of brown algae (PHAEOPHYCEAE) in the order Laminariales. They are a major component of the lower intertidal and sublittoral zones on rocky coasts in temperate and polar waters. Kelp, a kind of SEAWEED, usually refers to species in the genera LAMINARIA or MACROCYSTIS, but the term may also be used for species in FUCUS or Nereocystis.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)LouisianaInternal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Floods: Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.Afghan Campaign 2001-: Multinational coalition military operation initiated in October 2001 to counter terrorism and bring security to AFGHANISTAN in collaboration with Afghan forces.Combat Disorders: Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Narration: The act, process, or an instance of narrating, i.e., telling a story. In the context of MEDICINE or ETHICS, narration includes relating the particular and the personal in the life story of an individual.Bahamas: A chain of islands, cays, and reefs in the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. It is an independent state, called also the Commonwealth of the Bahamas or the Bahama Islands. The name likely represents the local name Guanahani, itself of uncertain origin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p106 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Social Control Policies: Decisions for determining and guiding present and future objectives from among alternatives.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Family Relations: Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Rehabilitation Nursing: A nursing specialty involved in the diagnosis and treatment of human responses of individuals and groups to actual or potential health problems with the characteristics of altered functional ability and altered life-style.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Behavioral Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)FiresDinoflagellida: Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Maintenance and Engineering, Hospital: Hospital department whose primary function is the upkeep and supervision of the buildings and grounds and the maintenance of hospital physical plant and equipment which requires engineering expertise.Personal Satisfaction: The individual's experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied.Iraq War, 2003-2011: An armed intervention involving multi-national forces in the country of IRAQ.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Authoritarianism: The personality pattern or syndrome consisting of behavioral and attitudinal characteristics reflecting a preoccupation with the factors of power and authority in interpersonal relationships.Happiness: Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Bombs: A weapon designed to explode when deployed. It frequently refers to a hollow case filled with EXPLOSIVE AGENTS.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Q-Sort: A personality assessment technique in which the subject or observer indicates the degree to which a standardized set of descriptive statements actually describes the subject. The term reflects "sorting" procedures occasionally used with this technique.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Tape Recording: Recording of information on magnetic or punched paper tape.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Refugees: Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)Emergency Responders: Personnel trained to provide the initial services, care, and support in EMERGENCIES or DISASTERS.Crisis Intervention: Brief therapeutic approach which is ameliorative rather than curative of acute psychiatric emergencies. Used in contexts such as emergency rooms of psychiatric or general hospitals, or in the home or place of crisis occurrence, this treatment approach focuses on interpersonal and intrapsychic factors and environmental modification. (APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)Emotional Intelligence: The ability to understand and manage emotions and to use emotional knowledge to enhance thought and deal effectively with tasks. Components of emotional intelligence include empathy, self-motivation, self-awareness, self-regulation, and social skill. Emotional intelligence is a measurement of one's ability to socialize or relate to others.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Queensland: A state in northeastern Australia. Its capital is Brisbane. Its coast was first visited by Captain Cook in 1770 and its first settlement (penal) was located on Moreton Bay in 1824. The name Cooksland was first proposed but honor to Queen Victoria prevailed. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p996 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p441)Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Ecological and Environmental Processes: Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.Kava: Dried rhizome and roots of Piper methysticum, a shrub native to Oceania and known for its anti-anxiety and sedative properties. Heavy usage results in some adverse effects. It contains ALKALOIDS; LACTONES; kawain, methysticin, mucilage, STARCH, and yangonin. Kava is also the name of the pungent beverage prepared from the plant's roots.AustriaMarine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Arabs: Members of a Semitic people inhabiting the Arabian peninsula or other countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The term may be used with reference to ancient, medieval, or modern ethnic or cultural groups. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Mass Casualty Incidents: Events that overwhelm the resources of local HOSPITALS and health care providers. They are likely to impose a sustained demand for HEALTH SERVICES rather than the short, intense peak customary with smaller scale disasters.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Gas, Natural: A combustible, gaseous mixture of low-molecular weight PARAFFIN hydrocarbons, generated below the surface of the earth. It contains mostly METHANE and ETHANE with small amounts of PROPANE; BUTANES; and higher hydrocarbons, and sometimes NITROGEN; CARBON DIOXIDE; HYDROGEN SULFIDE; and HELIUM. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)New South Wales: A state in southeastern Australia. Its capital is Sydney. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770 and first settled at Botany Bay by marines and convicts in 1788. It was named by Captain Cook who thought its coastline resembled that of South Wales. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p840 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p377)Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Foster Home Care: Families who care for neglected children or patients unable to care for themselves.Bereavement: Refers to the whole process of grieving and mourning and is associated with a deep sense of loss and sadness.Receptors, Dopamine D4: A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that has high affinity for the antipsychotic CLOZAPINE.Paternal Deprivation: Prolonged separation of the offspring from the father.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Elastomers: A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)HIV Serosorting: The practice of making choices about SEXUAL PARTNERS based on their HIV status.Community Networks: Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.Divorce: Legal dissolution of an officially recognized marriage relationship.Housing for the Elderly: Housing arrangements for the elderly or aged, intended to foster independent living. The housing may take the form of group homes or small apartments. It is available to the economically self-supporting but the concept includes housing for the elderly with some physical limitations. The concept should be differentiated from HOMES FOR THE AGED which is restricted to long-term geriatric facilities providing supervised medical and nursing services.Cognitive Reserve: Capacity that enables an individual to cope with and/or recover from the impact of a neural injury or a psychotic episode.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Ecotype: Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.Behavioral Symptoms: Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.Object Attachment: Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.Religion and Psychology: The interrelationship of psychology and religion.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Psychopathology: The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Social Conditions: The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Gulf of Mexico: A body of water located at the southeastern corner of North America. It is bordered by the states to the north of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas; by five Mexican states to the west: Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan; and by Cuba to the southeast.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.AfghanistanPetroleum Pollution: Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Suicidal Ideation: A risk factor for suicide attempts and completions, it is the most common of all suicidal behavior, but only a minority of ideators engage in overt self-harm.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)MichiganAllostasis: Biological adaptation, such as the rise of EPINEPHRINE in response to exercise, stress or perceived danger, followed by a fall of epinephrine during RELAXATION. Allostasis is the achievement of stability by turning on and turning off the allostatic systems including the IMMUNE SYSTEM; the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM and NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEMS.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Connectome: A comprehensive map of the physical interconnections of an organism's neural networks. This modular organization of neuronal architecture is believed to underlie disease mechanisms and the biological development of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Child, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Cultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Reproductive Behavior: Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Planning Techniques: Procedures, strategies, and theories of planning.Gene-Environment Interaction: The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.United StatesHeredity: The transmission of traits encoded in GENES from parent to offspring.Pacific OceanPsychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Sick Role: Set of expectations that exempt persons from responsibility for their illness and exempt them from usual responsibilities.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Time: The dimension of the physical universe which, at a given place, orders the sequence of events. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.