A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
The collection, preparation, and distribution of news and related commentary and feature materials through such media as pamphlets, newsletters, newspapers, magazines, radio, motion pictures, television, and books. While originally applied to the reportage of current events in printed form, specifically newspapers, with the advent of radio and television the use of the term has broadened to include all printed and electronic communication dealing with current affairs.
The practice of nursing in military environments.
The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.
The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
A bone on the ventral side of the shoulder girdle, which in humans is commonly called the collar bone.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
Professional society representing the field of medicine.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.
An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
A characteristic symptom complex.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
A subclass of cyclooxygenase inhibitors with specificity for CYCLOOXYGENASE-2.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
An inherited neurological developmental disorder that is associated with X-LINKED INHERITANCE and may be lethal in utero to hemizygous males. The affected female is normal until the age of 6-25 months when progressive loss of voluntary control of hand movements and communication skills; ATAXIA; SEIZURES; autistic behavior; intermittent HYPERVENTILATION; and HYPERAMMONEMIA appear. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p199)
A DNA-binding protein that interacts with methylated CPG ISLANDS. It plays a role in repressing GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and is frequently mutated in RETT SYNDROME.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
A condition characterized genotypically by mutation of the distal end of the long arm of the X chromosome (at gene loci FRAXA or FRAXE) and phenotypically by cognitive impairment, hyperactivity, SEIZURES, language delay, and enlargement of the ears, head, and testes. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY occurs in nearly all males and roughly 50% of females with the full mutation of FRAXA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p226)
Rigid or flexible appliances used to maintain in position a displaced or movable part or to keep in place and protect an injured part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.
A methylated nucleotide base found in eukaryotic DNA. In ANIMALS, the DNA METHYLATION of CYTOSINE to form 5-methylcytosine is found primarily in the palindromic sequence CpG. In PLANTS, the methylated sequence is CpNpGp, where N can be any base.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.
Abnormal passage communicating with the STOMACH.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
An abnormal anatomical passage between the INTESTINE, and another segment of the intestine or other organs. External intestinal fistula is connected to the SKIN (enterocutaneous fistula). Internal intestinal fistula can be connected to a number of organs, such as STOMACH (gastrocolic fistula), the BILIARY TRACT (cholecystoduodenal fistula), or the URINARY BLADDER of the URINARY TRACT (colovesical fistula). Risk factors include inflammatory processes, cancer, radiation treatment, and surgical misadventures (MEDICAL ERRORS).
Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.