Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Surgical Procedures, Minor: Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive: Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Surgical Procedures, Elective: Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.Gynecologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the female genitalia.Digestive System Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the ear and its parts, the nose and nasal cavity, or the throat, including surgery of the adenoids, tonsils, pharynx, and trachea.Urologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its parts in the male or female. For surgery of the male genitalia, UROLOGIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES, MALE is available.Obstetric Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the pregnant woman for conditions associated with pregnancy, labor, or the puerperium. It does not include surgery of the newborn infant.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Thoracic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the thoracic organs, most commonly the lungs and the heart.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart or blood vessels.General Surgery: A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Dermatologic Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Oral Surgical Procedures, Preprosthetic: Surgery necessary for a denture to rest on a firm base, free from marked osseous protuberances or undercuts, and devoid of interfering muscle attachments, excess mucoperiosteum, hyperplasias, and fibrous or papillary growths.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Ultrasonic Surgical Procedures: The use of HIGH-ENERGY SHOCK WAVES, in the frequency range of 20-60 kHz, to cut through or remove tissue. The tissue fragmentation by ultrasonic surgical instruments is caused by mechanical effects not heat as with HIGH-INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND ABLATION.Surgery Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers all departmental functions and the provision of surgical diagnostic and therapeutic services.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Pulmonary Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the lung.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Surgical Equipment: Nonexpendable apparatus used during surgical procedures. They are differentiated from SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, usually hand-held and used in the immediate operative field.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Microsurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Otologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the external, middle, or internal ear.Surgery, Plastic: The branch of surgery concerned with restoration, reconstruction, or improvement of defective, damaged, or missing structures.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Surgery, Veterinary: A board-certified specialty of VETERINARY MEDICINE, requiring at least four years of special education, training, and practice of veterinary surgery after graduation from veterinary school. In the written, oral, and practical examinations candidates may choose either large or small animal surgery. (From AVMA Directory, 43d ed, p278)Urogenital Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its organs and on the male or female genitalia.Surgery, Computer-Assisted: Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Surgery, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.Gloves, Surgical: Gloves, usually rubber, worn by surgeons, examining physicians, dentists, and other health personnel for the mutual protection of personnel and patient.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Hysterectomy: Excision of the uterus.Blood Loss, Surgical: Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Postoperative Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.Orthognathic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed to repair or correct the skeletal anomalies of the jaw and its associated dental and facial structures (e.g. CLEFT PALATE).Specialties, Surgical: Various branches of surgical practice limited to specialized areas.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Colectomy: Excision of a portion of the colon or of the whole colon. (Dorland, 28th ed)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Laparotomy: Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.Electrocoagulation: Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.