HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).HIV Seroprevalence: Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.HIV Core Protein p24: A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.HIV Protease: Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Blastoderm: A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)HIV Enteropathy: A syndrome characterized by chronic, well-established DIARRHEA (greater than one month in duration) without an identified infectious cause after thorough evaluation, in an HIV-positive individual. It is thought to be due to direct or indirect effects of HIV on the enteric mucosa. HIV enteropathy is a diagnosis of exclusion and can be made only after other forms of diarrheal illness have been ruled out. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, pp1607-8; Haubrich et al., Bockus Gastroenterology, 5th ed, p1155)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Prostitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Voluntary Programs: Programs in which participation is not required.HIV Envelope Protein gp41: Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.Safe Sex: Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Heterosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.Circumcision, Male: Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.HIV Fusion Inhibitors: Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.HIV Wasting Syndrome: Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.HIV Integrase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV INTEGRASE, an enzyme required for integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA.Social Stigma: A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.United StatesVirus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Sex Workers: People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.HIV-2: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.HIV Serosorting: The practice of making choices about SEXUAL PARTNERS based on their HIV status.Homosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.IndiaTuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.HIV Integrase: Enzyme of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS that is required to integrate viral DNA into cellular DNA in the nucleus of a host cell. HIV integrase is a DNA nucleotidyltransferase encoded by the pol gene.PrisonersSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Bisexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of both the same and the opposite SEX.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Anonymous Testing: Testing in which the source of the specimen or the person being tested is not individually identified.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Prisons: Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.New York CityCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Needle Sharing: Usage of a single needle among two or more people for injecting drugs. Needle sharing is a high-risk behavior for contracting infectious disease.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Namibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Mandatory Testing: Testing or screening required by federal, state, or local law or other agencies for the diagnosis of specified conditions. It is usually limited to specific populations such as categories of health care providers, members of the military, and prisoners or to specific situations such as premarital examinations or donor screening.AfricaChild, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.San FranciscoCamphor 5-Monooxygenase: A soluble cytochrome P-450 enzyme that catalyzes camphor monooxygenation in the presence of putidaredoxin, putidaredoxin reductase, and molecular oxygen. This enzyme, encoded by the CAMC gene also known as CYP101, has been crystallized from bacteria and the structure is well defined. Under anaerobic conditions, this enzyme reduces the polyhalogenated compounds bound at the camphor-binding site.Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral: Viral diseases which are transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Swaziland: A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880's, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.Nevirapine: A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.Los AngelesPrenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Transgendered Persons: Persons having a sense of persistent identification with, and expression of, gender-coded behaviors not typically associated with one's anatomical sex at birth, and with or without a desire to undergo SEX REASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Ritonavir: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Needle-Exchange Programs: Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.AIDS-Related Complex: A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Harm Reduction: The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Gene Products, tat: Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.Self Disclosure: A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.Delayed Diagnosis: Non-optimal interval of time between onset of symptoms, identification, and initiation of treatment.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Transsexualism: Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome: Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Directive Counseling: Counseling during which a professional plays an active role in a client's or patient's decision making by offering advice, guidance, and/or recommendations.pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Lesotho: A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Blood-Borne Pathogens: Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Sexuality: The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Indinavir: A potent and specific HIV protease inhibitor that appears to have good oral bioavailability.Christianity: The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Condoms, Female: A soft, loose-fitting polyurethane sheath, closed at one end, with flexible rings at both ends. The device is inserted into the vagina by compressing the inner ring and pushing it in. Properly positioned, the ring at the closed end covers the cervix, and the sheath lines the walls of the vagina. The outer ring remains outside the vagina, covering the labia. (Med Lett Drugs Ther 1993 Dec 24;35(12):123)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Nelfinavir: A potent HIV protease inhibitor. It is used in combination with other antiviral drugs in the treatment of HIV in both adults and children.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Herpes Genitalis: Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.BrazilComorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Crack Cocaine: The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.AIDS-Associated Nephropathy: Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic syndrome, severe proteinuria, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with distinctive tubular and interstitial changes, enlarged kidneys, and peculiar tubuloreticular structures. The syndrome is distinct from heroin-associated nephropathy as well as other forms of kidney disease seen in HIV-infected patients.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Vaginal Creams, Foams, and Jellies: Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.FloridaSexual Abstinence: Refraining from SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.Rhode IslandHaiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.