Rana temporaria: A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.Bufo bufo: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, widely distributed in the United States and Europe.Ranavirus: A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.Ranidae: The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.Rana pipiens: A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Amphibian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.Rana catesbeiana: A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.DNA Virus InfectionsRana esculenta: An edible species of the family Ranidae, occurring in Europe and used extensively in biomedical research. Commonly referred to as "edible frog".Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Rana ridibunda: A species of the family Ranidae which occurs primarily in Europe and is used widely in biomedical research.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Trigeminal Neuralgia: A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)Facial Neuralgia: Neuralgic syndromes which feature chronic or recurrent FACIAL PAIN as the primary manifestation of disease. Disorders of the trigeminal and facial nerves are frequently associated with these conditions.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Chytridiomycota: A phylum of fungi that was formerly considered a subdivision of Phycomycetes. They are the only fungi that produce motile spores (zoospores) at some stage in their life cycle. Most are saprobes but they also include examples of plant, animal, and fungal pathogens.SwedenAmphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.LondonFellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Saudi ArabiaCell Migration Assays: Specific assays that measure the migration of cells. They are commonly used to measure the migration of immune cells in response to stimuli and the inhibition of immune cell migration by immunosuppressive factors.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Animal Fins: Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Manuscripts as Topic: Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Manuscripts, MedicalOrthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention and correction of dental and oral anomalies (malocclusion).Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.United States