Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Screens which absorb the energy in the x-ray beam that has penetrated the patient and convert this energy into a light pattern which has as nearly as possible the same information as the original x-ray beam. The more light a screen produces for a given input of x-radiation, the less x-ray exposure and thus shorter exposure time are needed to expose the film. In most film-screen systems, the film is sandwiched between two screens in a cassette so that the emulsion on each side is exposed to the light from its contiguous screen.
Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.
A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)
Collections of related records treated as a unit; ordering of such files.
Technique involving the passage of X-rays through oral structures to create a film record while a central tab or wing of dental X-ray film is being held between upper and lower teeth.
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
Use of optic and geometric techniques to enhance radiographic image quality and interpretation. It includes use of microfocal X-ray tubes and intensifying fluoroscopic screens.
The application of dental knowledge to questions of law.
Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.
A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
A genus of the ascomycetous yeast in the family Saccharomycodaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES, that contributes to the spontaneous fermentation of cider. Anamorphic forms are in the genus KLOECKERA.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury.
The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.
The mouth, teeth, jaws, pharynx, and related structures as they relate to mastication, deglutition, and speech.
The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
The phase of orthodontics concerned with the correction of malocclusion with proper appliances and prevention of its sequelae (Jablonski's Illus. Dictionary of Dentistry).
Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)
A dental specialty concerned with the prevention and correction of dental and oral anomalies (malocclusion).
A dental health survey developed to evaluate a patient's orthodontic treatment need and priority for orthodontic care. The index is based on an assessment of degree of MALOCCLUSION and the potential aesthetic and dental health benefit of the treatment under consideration.
The different methods of scheduling patient visits, appointment systems, individual or group appointments, waiting times, waiting lists for hospitals, walk-in clinics, etc.
Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)
Treatment methods intended to prevent the development of crooked teeth that involve the use of space maintainers for BABY TEETH lost early or removal of PRIMARY TEETH that don't come out on their own. Commonly used in pediatric dentistry.
The movement of teeth into altered positions in relationship to the basal bone of the ALVEOLAR PROCESS and to adjoining and opposing teeth as a result of loss of approximating or opposing teeth, occlusal interferences, habits, inflammatory and dystrophic disease of the attaching and supporting structures of the teeth. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.
Dental devices such as RETAINERS, ORTHODONTIC used to improve gaps in teeth and structure of the jaws. These devices can be removed and reinserted at will.
A fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the opening of the throat.
A denture replacing one or more (but not all) natural teeth. It is supported and retained by underlying tissue and some or all of the remaining teeth.
Surgery performed on the ear and its parts, the nose and nasal cavity, or the throat, including surgery of the adenoids, tonsils, pharynx, and trachea.
A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.